How to format your references using the Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Livingstone MS. 2000. Is it warm? Is it real? Or just low spatial frequency? Science (New York, N.Y.) 290(5495): 1299b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karels TJ, Boonstra R. 2000. Concurrent density dependence and independence in populations of arctic ground squirrels. Nature 408(6811): 460–463.
A journal article with 3 authors
McKinney JC, Tchekhovskoy A, Blandford RD. 2013. Alignment of magnetized accretion disks and relativistic jets with spinning black holes. Science (New York, N.Y.) 339(6115): 49–52.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Bischofberger I, Calzolari DCE, De Los Rios P, Jelezarov I, Trappe V. 2014. Hydrophobic hydration of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide: a matter of the mean energetic state of water. Scientific reports 4: 4377.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heuer A. 2012. Der perfekte Tipp. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Burger J (ed). 2011. Stakeholders and Scientists: Achieving Implementable Solutions to Energy and Environmental Issues. Springer: New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Chevalier-Boisvert M, Hendren L, Verbrugge C. 2010. Optimizing Matlab through Just-In-Time Specialization. In Compiler Construction: 19th International Conference, CC 2010, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2010, Paphos, Cyprus, March 20-28, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Gupta R (ed). Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg: 46–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal.

Blog post
Fang J. 2015, August 12. The California Two-Spot Is The First Octopus To Have Its Genome Sequenced. IFLScience. IFLScience. [30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. Implementation of the Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wall JD. 2017. The Effects of Acute L-Dopa on Brux-like and Masticatory Motor Patterns: EMG Phase Analysis in Rats. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside K. 2016, August 21. From Olympic Rings to a Circus Ring. New York Times : B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Livingstone, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Karels and Boonstra, 2000; Livingstone, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Karels and Boonstra, 2000)
  • Three authors: (McKinney, Tchekhovskoy, and Blandford, 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Bischofberger et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleStrategic Entrepreneurship Journal
ISSN (print)1932-4391
ISSN (online)1932-443X

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