How to format your references using the Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gunawardena J: Systems biology. Biological systems theory. Science 2010;328:581–582.
A journal article with 2 authors
Du H, Rosbash M: The U1 snRNP protein U1C recognizes the 5’ splice site in the absence of base pairing. Nature 2002;419:86–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cziczo DJ, Thomson DS, Murphy DM: Ablation, flux, and atmospheric implications of meteors inferred from stratospheric aerosol. Science 2001;291:1772–1775.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Croft MT, Lawrence AD, Raux-Deery E, Warren MJ, Smith AG: Algae acquire vitamin B12 through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria. Nature 2005;438:90–93.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Randall JF: Designing Indoor Solar Products. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
Allen RB, Hunter J, Zeng ML (eds): Digital Libraries: Providing Quality Information: 17th International Conference on Asia-Pacific Digital Libraries, ICADL 2015, Seoul, Korea, December 9-12, 2015. Proceedings. 1st ed. 2015 Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Emoto K, Hu Z, Kakehi K, Matsuzaki K, Takeichi M: Generators-of-Generators Library with Optimization Capabilities in Fortress; in D’Ambra P, Guarracino M, Talia D (eds): Euro-Par 2010 - Parallel Processing: 16th International Euro-Par Conference, Ischia, Italy, August 31 - September 3, 2010, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2010, pp 26–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery.

Blog post
Davis J: Scientists Predict Everest Could Be Ice-Free By The End Of This Century. IFLScience 2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Agricultural Research and Development and Extension Activities. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson MM: Challenging the South’s black-white binary: Haliwa-Saponi Indians and political autonomy 2013;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K: In Unlikely Urban Shadows, A Shopping Haven Takes Root. New York Times 2003;146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleStereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
AbbreviationStereotact. Funct. Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)1011-6125
ISSN (online)1423-0372
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles