How to format your references using the Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weisel JW. Biophysics. Enigmas of blood clot elasticity. Science. 2008 Apr;320(5875):456–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Estrada E, Vargas-Estrada E. How peer pressure shapes consensus, leadership, and innovations in social groups. Sci Rep. 2013 Oct;3:2905.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahrestani FS, Hebblewhite M, Post E. The importance of observation versus process error in analyses of global ungulate populations. Sci Rep. 2013 Nov;3:3125.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rodewald HR, Paul S, Haller C, Bluethmann H, Blum C. Thymus medulla consisting of epithelial islets each derived from a single progenitor. Nature. 2001 Dec;414(6865):763–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Garg VK. Concurrent and Distributed Computing in Java. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Jaiwal PK, Singh RP, Dhankher OP, editors. Genetic Manipulation in Plants for Mitigation of Climate Change. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Broersen J. A stit Logic Analysis of Morally Lucky and Legally Lucky Action Outcomes. In: Müller T, editor. Nuel Belnap on Indeterminism and Free Action. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014; pp 75–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Quantum Dot Technology Could Lead To Solar Panel Windows [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 Apr


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review of HEW Guidelines for Acquiring Automatic Data Processing Systems Under the Social Security Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guilford TD. Advocacy for former prisoners to eliminate invisible bars: A grant proposal. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF. Mutiny in the Harbor: One Ship Too Many. New York Times. 2006 Jun;LI7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleStereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
AbbreviationStereotact. Funct. Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)1011-6125
ISSN (online)1423-0372
ScopeClinical Neurology

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