How to format your references using the Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C: Emerging powers need a more-inclusive science. Nature 2014;505:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lewinsohn TM, Cagnolo L: Ecology. Keystones in a tangled bank. Science 2012;335:1449–1451.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hill EW, Jobling MA, Bradley DG: Y-chromosome variation and Irish origins. Nature 2000;404:351–352.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Osuna CE, Lim S-Y, Kublin JL, Apps R, Chen E, Mota TM, et al.: Publisher Correction: Evidence that CD32a does not mark the HIV-1 latent reservoir. Nature 2018;

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Laplante PA, Ovaska SJ: Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Cho Z-H (ed): 7.0 Tesla MRI Brain Atlas: In-vivo Atlas with Cryomacrotome Correlation. 2nd ed. 2015 Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Heitzer M, Eckert A, Fuhrmann M, Griesbeck C: Influence of Codon Bias on the Expression of Foreign Genes in Microalgae; in León R, Galván A, Fernández E (eds): Transgenic Microalgae as Green Cell Factories. New York, NY, Springer, 2007, pp 46–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery.

Blog post
Andrew D: Alzheimer’s Breakthrough? Have We Nearly Cured Dementia? Not Just Yet…. IFLScience 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Judiciary: Information on the Weighted Filings Assigned to Senior District and Magistrate Judges in Fiscal Year 1997 in 21 District Courts. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lundahl Philpot E: Social media adoption and use among information technology professionals and implications for leadership 2013;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ: Slow Trading Fails to Dent Strong Results for Banks. New York Times 2017;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleStereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
AbbreviationStereotact. Funct. Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)1011-6125
ISSN (online)1423-0372
ScopeClinical Neurology

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