How to format your references using the Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scholl A. ANTIFERROMAGNETISM: Taking a Very Close Look at Magnetic Structures. Science. 2000 Jun;288(5472):1762–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Losick R, Sonenshein AL. Molecular biology. Turning gene regulation on its head. Science. 2001 Sep;293(5537):2018–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ta VD, Chen R, Sun HD. Tuning whispering gallery mode lasing from self-assembled polymer droplets. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1362.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sencan I, Coskun AF, Sikora U, Ozcan A. Spectral demultiplexing in holographic and fluorescent on-chip microscopy. Sci Rep. 2014 Jan;4:3760.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chitty J, Raftery A. Essentials of Tortoise Medicine and Surgery. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Reis S, Howard C, Sutton MA, editors. Costs of Ammonia Abatement and the Climate Co-Benefits. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Malatesta L, Karpouzis K, Raouzaiou A. Affective Intelligence: The Human Face of AI. In: Bramer M, editor. Artificial Intelligence An International Perspective: An International Perspective. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009; pp 53–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery.

Blog post
Davis J. Fracking Set To Take Place In England For First Time In Five Years [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 May


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA: Ares I and Orion Project Risks and Key Indicators to Measure Progress. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nakayama M. Educational Advocacy for Children in Foster Care: A Grant Proposal. 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. The Future Comes to a Place That Hasn’t Always Had One. New York Times. 2001 Feb;149.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleStereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
AbbreviationStereotact. Funct. Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)1011-6125
ISSN (online)1423-0372
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles