How to format your references using the Food Research International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Research International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoffmann, J. A. (2003). The immune response of Drosophila. Nature, 426(6962), 33–38.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheng, Z., & Tsourkas, A. (2014). Monitoring phospholipase A₂ activity with Gd-encapsulated phospholipid liposomes. Scientific Reports, 4, 6958.
A journal article with 3 authors
Izawa, Y., Pun, D., & Stahl, S. S. (2011). Palladium-catalyzed aerobic dehydrogenation of substituted cyclohexanones to phenols. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6039), 209–213.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sundkvist, D., Krasnoselskikh, V., Shukla, P. K., Vaivads, A., André, M., Buchert, S., & Rème, H. (2005). In situ multi-satellite detection of coherent vortices as a manifestation of Alfvénic turbulence. Nature, 436(7052), 825–828.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Xing, B., Vecitis, C. D., & Senesi, N. (2016). Engineered Nanoparticles and the Environment: Biophysicochemical Processes and Toxicity. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Correia, F., & Iacona, A. (Eds.). (2013). Around the Tree: Semantic and Metaphysical Issues Concerning Branching and the Open Future (Vol. 361). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Lin, L., Hedayat, A. S., & Wu, W. (2012). Sample Size and Power. In A. S. Hedayat & W. Wu (Eds.), Statistical Tools for Measuring Agreement (pp. 71–74). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Research International.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, February 1). Brain-Computer Interface Allows Locked-In Patients To Communicate. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). DOD Instruction 5000.5X, Standard Instruction Set Architectures for Embedded Computers (MASAD-82-16). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Poland, M. C. (2010). New cluster-based routing and multi-channel MAC protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, S. (2016, October 14). Trump’s Boasts Shake Women Out of Silence. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoffmann, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Cheng & Tsourkas, 2014; Hoffmann, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cheng & Tsourkas, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Izawa et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sundkvist et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Research International
AbbreviationFood Res. Int.
ISSN (print)0963-9969
ScopeFood Science

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