How to format your references using the Food Research International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Research International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Norton, D. A. (2009). Species invasions and the limits to restoration: learning from the New Zealand experience. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5940), 569–571.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pouille, F., & Scanziani, M. (2004). Routing of spike series by dynamic circuits in the hippocampus. Nature, 429(6993), 717–723.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen, S., Yuzenkova, Y., & Zenkin, N. (2013). Mechanism of eukaryotic RNA polymerase III transcription termination. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6140), 1577–1580.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bellini, T., Radzihovsky, L., Toner, J., & Clark, N. A. (2001). Universality and scaling in the disordering of a smectic liquid crystal. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5544), 1074–1079.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fitzgerald, R. W., & Meacham, B. J. (2017). Fire Performance Analysis for Buildings. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Biemann, C., & Mehler, A. (Eds.). (2014). Text Mining: From Ontology Learning to Automated Text Processing Applications. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Fath, B. D. (2013). Ecosystem Flow Analysis. In R. Leemans (Ed.), Ecological Systems: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology (pp. 69–80). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Research International.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2017, May 17). T. Rex Ants Seen Alive For First Time. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1972). Examination Into Certain Irregularities Reported as Existing at the Department of Labor Atterbury Job Corps Center near Edinburg, Indiana (B-130515). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnston, J. S. (2017). Echo in Three Acts: The Lost Historical Subject in (Dis)articulation [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2007, October 7). Cheesecakes to Share, or Not. New York Times, 14NJ14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Norton, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Norton, 2009; Pouille & Scanziani, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pouille & Scanziani, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Nielsen et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bellini et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Research International
AbbreviationFood Res. Int.
ISSN (print)0963-9969
ScopeFood Science

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