How to format your references using the Food Research International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Research International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Prum, R. O. (2010). Moulting tail feathers in a juvenile oviraptorisaur. Nature, 468(7320), E1; discussion E2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burgisser, A., & Bergantz, G. W. (2011). A rapid mechanism to remobilize and homogenize highly crystalline magma bodies. Nature, 471(7337), 212–215.
A journal article with 3 authors
Good, M. C., Zalatan, J. G., & Lim, W. A. (2011). Scaffold proteins: hubs for controlling the flow of cellular information. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6030), 680–686.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Knauth, D. C., Andersson, B.-G., McCandliss, S. R., & Moos, H. W. (2004). The interstellar N2 abundance towards HD 124314 from far-ultraviolet observations. Nature, 429(6992), 636–638.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quinlan, J., & VanderBrug, J. (2016). Gender Lens Investing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Radosevich, J. A. (Ed.). (2013). Head & Neck Cancer: Current Perspectives, Advances, and Challenges. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Malone, T., & Jackman, C. (2016). Spectatorship as Embodied Practice. In C. Jackman (Ed.), Adapting War Horse: Cognition, the Spectator, and a Sense of Play (pp. 39–49). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Research International.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 23). Marine Animals Found Thriving In One Of World’s Most Extreme Environments. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1970). Administration of Payroll Matters for Civilian Employees, Marine Corps Development and Education Command (No. 092125). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Uthe, P. B. (2010). The development of polycationic materials for gene delivery applications [Doctoral dissertation]. University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2017, March 23). U.S. to Face Honduras With a Depleted Roster. New York Times, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Prum, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Burgisser & Bergantz, 2011; Prum, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burgisser & Bergantz, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Good et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Knauth et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Research International
AbbreviationFood Res. Int.
ISSN (print)0963-9969
ScopeFood Science

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