How to format your references using the Statistics and Probability Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Statistics and Probability Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman, M., 2007. When the party’s over. Nature 445, 13.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hitz, M.-P., Andelfinger, G., 2015. Cardiology: Race for healthy hearts. Nature 520, 160–161.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zenisek, D., Steyer, J.A., Almers, W., 2000. Transport, capture and exocytosis of single synaptic vesicles at active zones. Nature 406, 849–854.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cha, J.W., Singh, V.R., Kim, K.H., Subramanian, J., Peng, Q., Yu, H., Nedivi, E., So, P.T.C., 2014. Reassignment of scattered emission photons in multifocal multiphoton microscopy. Sci. Rep. 4, 5153.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, C., Meeking, D., 2013. How to Succeed at the Medical Interview. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Singh, H., 2016. Plasma-based Radar Cross Section Reduction, 1st ed. 2016. ed, SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Potter, G.B., Gibbs, J.C., Robbins, M., Langdon, P.E., 2015. Equipping with Skills to Manage Anger and Correct Thinking Errors, in: Gibbs, J.C., Robbins, M., Langdon, P.E. (Eds.), A Comprehensive Cognitive Behavioral Program for Offenders: Responsible Adult Culture. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 141–182.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Statistics and Probability Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2013. Second Set of Vocal Cords Discovered in Koalas [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. Technology Innovation: Improving the Climate for Government-Industry Cooperation (No. 094659). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sponsel, H., 2010. Was sagte dieser Schiller (damals)? Schillers Antworten auf seine Kritiker nach 1945 (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2015. Volcker Sees Hidden Peril in State Budget Practices. New York Times B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wadman, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Hitz and Andelfinger, 2015; Wadman, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hitz and Andelfinger, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Cha et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleStatistics and Probability Letters
AbbreviationStat. Probab. Lett.
ISSN (print)0167-7152
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability

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