How to format your references using the Statistics and Probability Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Statistics and Probability Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paytan, A., 2012. Geochemistry. Mountains, weathering, and climate. Science 335, 810–811.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jutzi, M., Asphaug, E., 2015. COMETARY NUCLEI. The shape and structure of cometary nuclei as a result of low-velocity accretion. Science 348, 1355–1358.
A journal article with 3 authors
Regan, C.K., Craig, S.L., Brauman, J.I., 2002. Steric effects and solvent effects in ionic reactions. Science 295, 2245–2247.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Palleroni, A., Miller, C.T., Hauser, M., Marler, P., 2005. Predation: Prey plumage adaptation against falcon attack. Nature 434, 973–974.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shynk, J.J., 2016. Mathematical Foundations for Linear Circuits and Systems in Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Liu, X.Y. (Ed.), 2012. Bioinspiration: From Nano to Micro Scales, Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Mehta, G., Deelman, E., Knowles, J.A., Chen, T., Wang, Y., Vöckler, J., Buyske, S., Matise, T., 2012. Enabling Data and Compute Intensive Workflows in Bioinformatics, in: Alexander, M., D’Ambra, P., Belloum, A., Bosilca, G., Cannataro, M., Danelutto, M., Martino, B.D., Gerndt, M., Jeannot, E., Namyst, R., Roman, J., Scott, S.L., Traff, J.L., Vallée, G., Weidendorfer, J. (Eds.), Euro-Par 2011: Parallel Processing Workshops: CCPI, CGWS, HeteroPar, HiBB, HPCVirt, HPPC, HPSS, MDGS, ProPer, Resilience, UCHPC, VHPC, Bordeaux, France, August 29 – September 2, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 23–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Statistics and Probability Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Costa Rica Has Only Used Renewable Energy For Electricity This Year [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Technology Assessment: Explosives Detection Technologies to Protect Passenger Rail (No. GAO-10-898). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Culver, M.D., 2015. Assessing the influence of emotional intelligence on effective fire service leadership (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M., Moynihan, C., 2017. Witnesses Recall Deafening Blast and Shrapnel in Chelsea Bombing Trial. New York Times A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Paytan, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Jutzi and Asphaug, 2015; Paytan, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jutzi and Asphaug, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Palleroni et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleStatistics and Probability Letters
AbbreviationStat. Probab. Lett.
ISSN (print)0167-7152
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability

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