How to format your references using the Current Problems in Cardiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Problems in Cardiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deng B. Motion studies: See how they run. Nature. 2015;525(7567):145-146.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ramesh KV, Goswami P. Assessing reliability of regional climate projections: the case of Indian monsoon. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4071.
A journal article with 3 authors
Young WR, Roberts AJ, Stuhne G. Reproductive pair correlations and the clustering of organisms. Nature. 2001;412(6844):328-331.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Luik RM, Wang B, Prakriya M, Wu MM, Lewis RS. Oligomerization of STIM1 couples ER calcium depletion to CRAC channel activation. Nature. 2008;454(7203):538-542.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hersent O. IP Telephony. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Zamojski W, Kacprzyk J, Mazurkiewicz J, Sugier J, Walkowiak T, eds. Dependable Computer Systems. Vol 97. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Celikyilmaz A, Türksen IB. Modeling Uncertainty with Improved Fuzzy Functions. In: Türksen IB, ed. Modeling Uncertainty with Fuzzy Logic: With Recent Theory and Applications. Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009:149-215.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Problems in Cardiology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. X-Ray Laser Shows Biological Reaction In A Real-Time Snapshot. IFLScience. Published November 15, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Current Broadband Measures Have Limitations and New Measures Are Promising but Need Improvement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rutherford C. The education of Dr. Khalil Totah. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. Film Series. New York Times. February 23, 2017:C26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Problems in Cardiology
AbbreviationCurr. Probl. Cardiol.
ISSN (print)0146-2806
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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