How to format your references using the Current Problems in Cardiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Problems in Cardiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Druker BJ. Janet Rowley (1925-2013). Nature. 2014;505(7484):484.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams JH, Friedman WE. Identification of diploid endosperm in an early angiosperm lineage. Nature. 2002;415(6871):522-526.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mézard M, Parisi G, Zecchina R. Analytic and algorithmic solution of random satisfiability problems. Science. 2002;297(5582):812-815.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wilson AM, McGuigan MP, Su A, van Den Bogert AJ. Horses damp the spring in their step. Nature. 2001;414(6866):895-899.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Focardi SM, Fabozzi FJ, Bali TG. Mathematical Methods for Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Guimarães KS, Panchenko A, Przytycka TM, eds. Advances in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology: 4th Brazilian Symposium on Bioinformatics, BSB 2009, Porto Alegre, Brazil, July 29-31, 2009. Proceedings. Vol 5676. Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Medeiros MFT. Historical Ethnobiology. In: Albuquerque UP, Nóbrega Alves RR, eds. Introduction to Ethnobiology. Springer International Publishing; 2016:19-24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Problems in Cardiology.

Blog post
Evans K. US Navy Sonar Found To Breach Whale Protection Laws. IFLScience. Published July 21, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commercial Aviation: Programs and Options for the Federal Approach to Providing and Improving Air Service to Small Communities. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bavkar IN. In-Node Vehicle Classification and Identification. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. An Old Friend Returns, Herbs and Fruit In Hand. New York Times. July 20, 2003:146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Problems in Cardiology
AbbreviationCurr. Probl. Cardiol.
ISSN (print)0146-2806
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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