How to format your references using the Current Problems in Cardiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Problems in Cardiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Sweet dreams. Nature. 2003;421(6919):193.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ratcliffe JM, Nydam ML. Multimodal warning signals for a multiple predator world. Nature. 2008;455(7209):96-99.
A journal article with 3 authors
Laepple T, Werner M, Lohmann G. Synchronicity of Antarctic temperatures and local solar insolation on orbital timescales. Nature. 2011;471(7336):91-94.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Koller G, Berkebile S, Oehzelt M, et al. Intra- and intermolecular band dispersion in an organic crystal. Science. 2007;317(5836):351-355.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martindale W. Global Food Security and Supply. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Bičík I. Land Use Changes in the Czech Republic 1845–2010: Socio-Economic Driving Forces. (Kupková L, Jeleček L, Kabrda J, Štych P, Janoušek Z, Winklerová J, eds.). Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhao Z, Liu T, Hou X, Li B, Du X. Distributed Text Representation with Weighting Scheme Guidance for Sentiment Analysis. In: Li F, Shim K, Zheng K, Liu G, eds. Web Technologies and Applications: 18th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb 2016, Suzhou, China, September 23-25, 2016. Proceedings, Part I. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing; 2016:41-52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Problems in Cardiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Military Test Amphibious Robot Guard Balls. IFLScience. Published February 18, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Contracting for Computer Teleprocessing Services Can Be Improved. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cruz AA. Concordance between therapists’ self -reports and observers’ ratings of adherence to marital therapy. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. On Gun Ownership, and Attitudes, in America. New York Times. June 22, 2017:A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Problems in Cardiology
AbbreviationCurr. Probl. Cardiol.
ISSN (print)0146-2806
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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