How to format your references using the Current Problems in Cardiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Problems in Cardiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pennisi E. Biomaterials. Crystalline eyes of chitons inspire materials scientists. Science. 2015;350(6263):899.
A journal article with 2 authors
Summers MF, Hrabowski FA 3rd. Diversity. Preparing minority scientists and engineers. Science. 2006;311(5769):1870-1871.
A journal article with 3 authors
Talkington MWT, Siuzdak G, Williamson JR. An assembly landscape for the 30S ribosomal subunit. Nature. 2005;438(7068):628-632.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ranta E, Lundberg P, Kaitala V, Stenseth NC. Ecology. On the crest of a population wave. Science. 2002;298(5595):973-974.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pompian MM. Advising Ultra-Affluent Clients and Family Offices. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Sukul NC. High Dilution Effects: Physical and Biochemical Basis. (Sukul A, ed.). Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Kessler E. An Empirical Perspective on Cold Fronts. In: Bosart LF, Bluestein HB, eds. Synoptic—Dynamic Meteorology and Weather Analysis and Forecasting: A Tribute to Fred Sanders. American Meteorological Society; 2008:97-108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Problems in Cardiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Low-Levels Of Radiation Around Fukushima Affecting Insect Survival. IFLScience. Published September 23, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Proposed Closure of VOA Dixon Relay Station. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lowrance TL. Exploring the Four Modes of Organizational Forgetting in an Organization Post Acquisition. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. 101 Years Ago: ‘The Birth of a Nation’ Had its First Screenings. New York Times. February 5, 2016:C29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Problems in Cardiology
AbbreviationCurr. Probl. Cardiol.
ISSN (print)0146-2806
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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