How to format your references using the Clinical Cancer Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Cancer Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Hannon GJ. RNA interference. Nature. 2002;418:244–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Maruyama D, Zochowski M. Competition and cooperation between active intra-network and passive extra-network transport processes. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5269.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Imaizumi T, Kay SA, Schroeder JI. Circadian rhythms. Daily watch on metabolism. Science. 2007;318:1730–1.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Madhusudhan N, Harrington J, Stevenson KB, Nymeyer S, Campo CJ, Wheatley PJ, et al. A high C/O ratio and weak thermal inversion in the atmosphere of exoplanet WASP-12b. Nature. 2011;469:64–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Gardi F, Benoist T, Darlay J, Estellon B, Megel R. Mathematical Programming Solver Based on Local Search. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Joye M, Moradi A, editors. Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications: 13th International Conference, CARDIS 2014, Paris, France, November 5-7, 2014. Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Bonadeo CM, Guidi A, Straface A, Marcotte RD, Bonadeo CM, Noble S, et al. Abraham ibn Ezra. In: Lagerlund H, editor. Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. page 4–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Cancer Research.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Craziest Sex Lives of the Animal Kingdom [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/craziest-sex-lives-animal-kingdom/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. The Challenge of Career Adaptation and Renewal. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Apr. Report No.: 106027.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Miranda PJ. Tightly-coupled sulfur-cycling microbial mats of the White Point hydrothermal vent field, CA: An analog for deep-sea vents [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Gustines GG. TV’s Go-To Guy For Playing Truth or Dare. New York Times. 2011;AR17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Cancer Research
AbbreviationClin. Cancer Res.
ISSN (print)1078-0432
ISSN (online)1557-3265
ScopeCancer Research
Oncology

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