How to format your references using the Clinical Cancer Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Cancer Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Wilson EO. Environment: early ant plagues in the New World. Nature. 2005;433:32.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
van den Elsen JMH, Isenman DE. A crystal structure of the complex between human complement receptor 2 and its ligand C3d. Science. 2011;332:608–11.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Davé UP, Jenkins NA, Copeland NG. Gene therapy insertional mutagenesis insights. Science. 2004;303:333.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Ruby NF, Brennan TJ, Xie X, Cao V, Franken P, Heller HC, et al. Role of melanopsin in circadian responses to light. Science. 2002;298:2211–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Cobb K. The Blackwell Guide to Theology and Popular Culture. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1.
Salvolini U, Scarabino T, editors. High Field Brain MRI: Use in Clinical Practice. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Watson RNM. Towards a Theory of Application Compartmentalisation (Transcript of Discussion). In: Christianson B, Malcolm J, Stajano F, Anderson J, Bonneau J, editors. Security Protocols XXI: 21st International Workshop, Cambridge, UK, March 19-20, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. page 28–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Cancer Research.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Dancing Baby Skates! [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/dancing-baby-skates/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. NASA Procurement: Opportunities to Improve Contract Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 May. Report No.: T-NSIAD-92-33.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Tarar WA. A New Finite Element Procedure for Fatigue Life Predictionand High Strain Rate Assessment of Cold Worked Advanced High Strength Steel [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kenigsberg B. Film Series. New York Times. 2017;C26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Cancer Research
AbbreviationClin. Cancer Res.
ISSN (print)1078-0432
ISSN (online)1557-3265
ScopeCancer Research
Oncology

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