How to format your references using the Clinical Cancer Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Cancer Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wakeley J. Complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees. Nature. 2008;452:E3-4; discussion E4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chuong EB, Feschotte C. Evolution. Transposons up the dosage. Science. 2013;342:812–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marasco A, Limongiello A, Migliore M. Using Strahler’s analysis to reduce up to 200-fold the run time of realistic neuron models. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2934.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Poliakoff M, Fitzpatrick JM, Farren TR, Anastas PT. Green chemistry: science and politics of change. Science. 2002;297:807–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Laursen GHN, Thorlund J. Business Analytics for Managers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Wu Y, editor. Computing and Intelligent Systems: International Conference, ICCIC 2011, Wuhan, China, September 17-18, 2011. Proceedings, Part IV. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Hamid B. A Model-Driven Methodology Approach for Developing a Repository of Models. In: Ait Ameur Y, Bellatreche L, Papadopoulos GA, editors. Model and Data Engineering: 4th International Conference, MEDI 2014, Larnaca, Cyprus, September 24-26, 2014 Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. page 29–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Cancer Research.

Blog post
Luntz S. Star Too Young For Planets Turns Out To Have One [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Deaf/Blind Children and the Centers Serving Them. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 Jul. Report No.: 121879.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mills AD. Strategic school solutions: A capacity building framework for leaders accelerating 21st century teaching and learning [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. Dear Theatergoers: Prepare for a Good Cry. New York Times. 2016;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Cancer Research
AbbreviationClin. Cancer Res.
ISSN (print)1078-0432
ISSN (online)1557-3265
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles