How to format your references using the Clinical Cancer Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Cancer Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Betz AG. Immunology. Have you seen your mother, baby. Science. 2010;330:1635–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tabak LA, Collins FS. Sociology. Weaving a richer tapestry in biomedical science. Science. 2011;333:940–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tuthill PG, Monnier JD, Danchi WC. A dusty torus around the luminous young star LkH alpha101. Nature. 2001;409:1012–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wen G, Luo Y, Liang A, Jiang Z. Autocatalytic oxidization of nanosilver and its application to spectral analysis. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3990.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dincer I, Rosen MA, Ahmadi P. Optimization of Energy Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Sieper J. Clinician’s Manual on Axial Spondyloarthritis. Braun J, editor. Tarporley: Springer Healthcare Ltd.; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Tóth KF, Pezic D, Stuwe E, Webster A. The piRNA Pathway Guards the Germline Genome Against Transposable Elements. In: Wilhelm D, Bernard P, editors. Non-coding RNA and the Reproductive System. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016. page 51–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Cancer Research.

Blog post
Carpineti A. New Metamaterial Transmits Light With No Energy Loss [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Effectiveness of Small Business Innovation Research Program Procedures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Jun. Report No.: RCED-87-63.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kent L. Justification-Suppression of Gender and Race Bias in Hiring: The Impact of Accountability [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. Chatting With Bowie. New York Times. 2016;BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Cancer Research
AbbreviationClin. Cancer Res.
ISSN (print)1078-0432
ISSN (online)1557-3265
ScopeCancer Research

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