How to format your references using the Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Muchhala, N. (2006). Nectar bat stows huge tongue in its rib cage. Nature, 444(7120), 701–702.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bannerman, D. M., & Sprengel, R. (2007). Neuroscience. Remembering the subtle differences. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5834), 50–51.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elia, A. E. H., Cantley, L. C., & Yaffe, M. B. (2003). Proteomic screen finds pSer/pThr-binding domain localizing Plk1 to mitotic substrates. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5610), 1228–1231.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kerr, B., Riley, M. A., Feldman, M. W., & Bohannan, B. J. M. (2002). Local dispersal promotes biodiversity in a real-life game of rock-paper-scissors. Nature, 418(6894), 171–174.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
King, M. (2011). Process Control. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Dubey, A. K., & Biswas, A. (Eds.). (2016). India and Africa’s Partnership: A Vision for a New Future (1st ed. 2016). Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Yamakawa, H., & Yoshizaki, T. (2016). Equilibrium Properties. In T. Yoshizaki (Ed.), Helical Wormlike Chains in Polymer Solutions (pp. 129–191). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 2). Mass Inhalation Of Laughing Gas In London To Protest Crack Down On Legal Highs. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). DOE’s Laboratory Facilities (RCED-96-183R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carpenter, D. M. (2009). Understanding the effect of conflicting information on medication adherence for vasculitis patients [Doctoral dissertation]. University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2016, April 13). Bill to Ease Puerto Rico Through $72 Billion Debt Crisis Introduced in House. New York Times, B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Muchhala, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bannerman & Sprengel, 2007; Muchhala, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bannerman & Sprengel, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Elia et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kerr et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePersonality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment
AbbreviationPersonal. Disord.
ISSN (print)1949-2715
ISSN (online)1949-2723
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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