How to format your references using the Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Matzinger, P. (2002). The danger model: a renewed sense of self. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5566), 301–305.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fradkin, E., & Kivelson, S. A. (2010). Physics. Electron nematic phases proliferate. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5962), 155–156.
A journal article with 3 authors
Takano, A., Endo, T., & Yoshihisa, T. (2005). tRNA actively shuttles between the nucleus and cytosol in yeast. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5731), 140–142.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mueller, A.-K., Labaied, M., Kappe, S. H. I., & Matuschewski, K. (2005). Genetically modified Plasmodium parasites as a protective experimental malaria vaccine. Nature, 433(7022), 164–167.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, B., & Qiu, D. (2014). Sneak Circuits of Power Electronic Converters. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Snarskii, A. A. (2016). Transport Processes in Macroscopically Disordered Media: From Mean Field Theory to Percolation (I. V. Bezsudnov, V. A. Sevryukov, A. Morozovskiy, & J. Malinsky, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Müller, H. (2009). 2030: Alps Tourism in the Face of Climate Change. In R. Conrady & M. Buck (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Global Tourism 2009 (pp. 57–63). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, January 22). Giant Tortoises Make An Adorable Comeback In The Galapagos. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Space Shuttle: Incomplete Data and Funding Approach Increase Cost Risk for Upgrade Program (NSIAD-94-23). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chaves, J. S. (2009). Novel approach for the creation of thin films and interconnects using single walled carbon nanotubes inkjet technology and bacteria [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2015, September 18). Opening Night for ‘Arsenic and Old Lace.’ New York Times, C28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Matzinger, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Fradkin & Kivelson, 2010; Matzinger, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fradkin & Kivelson, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Takano et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mueller et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePersonality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment
AbbreviationPersonal. Disord.
ISSN (print)1949-2715
ISSN (online)1949-2723
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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