How to format your references using the Standards in Genomic Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Standards in Genomic Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Curran DP. Chemistry. Fluorous tags unstick messy chemical biology problems. Science. 2008;321:1645–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Jutzi M, Asphaug E. COMETARY NUCLEI. The shape and structure of cometary nuclei as a result of low-velocity accretion. Science. 2015;348:1355–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Nawae W, Hannongbua S, Ruengjitchatchawalya M. Defining the membrane disruption mechanism of kalata B1 via coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3933.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wobus C, Heimsath A, Whipple K, Hodges K. Active out-of-sequence thrust faulting in the central Nepalese Himalaya. Nature. 2005;434:1008–11.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. McBain GD. Theory of Lift. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Gray T, Silver-Pacuilla H, editors. Breakthrough Teaching and Learning: How Educational and Assistive Technologies are Driving Innovation. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Latvakoski J, Hautakoski T, Iivari A. Situated Service Oriented Messaging for Opportunistic Networks. In: Altman E, Carrera I, El-Azouzi R, Hart E, Hayel Y, editors. Bioinspired Models of Network, Information, and Computing Systems: 4th International Conference, BIONETICS 2009, Avignon, France, December 9-11, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 50–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Standards in Genomic Sciences.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Could We Upload A Brain To A Computer – And Should We Even Try? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Status of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Mar. Report No.: PSAD-77-23.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sherman CP. The effect of head and heart on municipal employee retention [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2001.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Billard M. A New Bag, A New Space. New York Times. 2010 Oct 7;E9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleStandards in Genomic Sciences
AbbreviationStand. Genomic Sci.
ISSN (online)1944-3277

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