How to format your references using the Public Health Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Public Health Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Muller-Landau HC. Ecology: plant diversity rooted in pathogens. Nature. 2014;506:44–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Knepper MA, Agre P. Structural biology. The atomic architecture of a gas channel. Science. 2004;305:1573–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lee H, Cheng Y-C, Fleming GR. Coherence dynamics in photosynthesis: protein protection of excitonic coherence. Science. 2007;316:1462–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yu Y, Mai J, Wang L, Li X, Jiang Z, Wang F. Ship-in-a-bottle synthesis of amine-functionalized ionic liquids in NaY zeolite for CO2 capture. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5997.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Weinberg MA, Segelnick SL, Insler JS, Kramer S. The Dentist’s Quick Guide to Medical Conditions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1. Lone SH. Chemical and Pharmacological Perspective of Artemisia amygdalina. Bhat KA, Khuroo MA, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Fatteh N, Mian SI. Overview of Relevant Clinical Disorders and Their Relation to Keratoprosthesis. In: Cortina MS, de la Cruz J, editors. Keratoprostheses and Artificial Corneas: Fundamentals and Surgical Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 35–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Public Health Reviews.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. New Test Shows Event Horizons Are Still More Likely Than Any Alternatives [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. The Atlanta Region: Welcome to the Now South! Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 Jan. Report No.: 115187.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Flannery R. Clustering of Cyclic-Nucleotide-Gated Channels in Olfactory Cilia [Doctoral dissertation]. [Cincinnati, OH]: University of Cincinnati; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Burghardt LF. The Legacies They Left. New York Times. 2006 Jan 1;14LI7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePublic Health Reviews
AbbreviationPublic Health Rev.
ISSN (online)2107-6952
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Community and Home Care

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