How to format your references using the Psychological Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychological Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Guthrie, R. D. (2006). New carbon dates link climatic change with human colonization and Pleistocene extinctions. Nature, 441(7090), 207–209.
A journal article with 2 authors
Andrew, P., & Barnes, W. L. (2004). Energy transfer across a metal film mediated by surface plasmon polaritons. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5698), 1002–1005.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang, W., Birk, F. T., & Davidović, D. (2013). Effects of confinement and electron transport on magnetic switching in single Co nanoparticles. Scientific reports, 3, 1200.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Postma, H. W., Teepen, T., Yao, Z., Grifoni, M., & Dekker, C. (2001). Carbon nanotube single-electron transistors at room temperature. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5527), 76–79.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gardi, F., Benoist, T., Darlay, J., Estellon, B., & Megel, R. (2014). Mathematical Programming Solver Based on Local Search. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pollard, A. B., & Duncan, C. B. (Eds.). (2016). The Black Church Studies Reader. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Agarwal, B., & Mittal, N. (2016). Semantic Parsing Using Dependency Rules. In N. Mittal (Ed.), Prominent Feature Extraction for Sentiment Analysis (pp. 47–61). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychological Studies.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, October 27). Two New Studies Explain The Formation Of A Bullseye Crater On The Moon. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Educational Laboratory and Research and Development Center Programs Need To Be Strengthened (No. B-164031(1)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stangl, B. L. (2010). The mediation of cognitive task performance in post-menopausal women: An examination of the effects of DHEA upon cognition (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Meyer, J. A., & Meyer, L. R. (2007, October 28). Abolish Parole. New York Times, p. 14CT15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Guthrie 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Andrew and Barnes 2004; Guthrie 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Andrew and Barnes 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Postma et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychological Studies
AbbreviationPsychol. Stud. (Mysore)
ISSN (print)0033-2968
ISSN (online)0974-9861
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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