How to format your references using the Studying Teacher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Studying Teacher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carpenter, B. K. (2011). Chemistry. Taking the high road and getting there before you. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6035), 1269–1270.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chang, E. F., & Merzenich, M. M. (2003). Environmental noise retards auditory cortical development. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5618), 498–502.
A journal article with 3 authors
O’Brien, S. J., Eizirik, E., & Murphy, W. J. (2001). Genomics. On choosing mammalian genomes for sequencing. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5525), 2264–2266.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Arendt, D., Tessmar-Raible, K., Snyman, H., Dorresteijn, A. W., & Wittbrodt, J. (2004). Ciliary photoreceptors with a vertebrate-type opsin in an invertebrate brain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5697), 869–871.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levander, C. F. (2013). Where is American Literature? Wiley Blackwell.
An edited book
Lee, G., Howard, D., & Ślęzak, D. (Eds.). (2011). Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology: 5th International Conference, ICHIT 2011, Daejeon, Korea, September 22-24, 2011. Proceedings (Vol. 206). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Faure, C. (2013). Visceral Sensitivity. In C. Faure, C. Di Lorenzo, & N. Thapar (Eds.), Pediatric Neurogastroenterology: Gastrointestinal Motility and Functional Disorders in Children (pp. 37–48). Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Studying Teacher Education.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, July 7). How Malaria Species Combine To Make Infections Worse. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). FAA Safety Inspector Training Survey Data, an E-supplement to GAO-05-728 (GAO-05-704SP). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sato, O. (2010). The use of statistical metrics as a decision making tool in brief experimental analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, November 3). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; CLINTON AND BUSH IN A SPRINT AS RACE FOR WHITE HOUSE ENDS. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carpenter, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Carpenter, 2011; Chang & Merzenich, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chang & Merzenich, 2003)
  • Three authors: (O’Brien et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Arendt et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleStudying Teacher Education
AbbreviationStud. Teach. Educ.
ISSN (print)1742-5964
ISSN (online)1742-5972

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