How to format your references using the SpringerPlus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SpringerPlus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2003) Ground control. Nature 421:969
A journal article with 2 authors
Sotomayor M, Schulten K (2007) Single-molecule experiments in vitro and in silico. Science 316:1144–1148
A journal article with 3 authors
Chu L, Xiao K-J, Yu J-Q (2014) Room-temperature enantioselective C-H iodination via kinetic resolution. Science 346:451–455
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wu L, Yang X, Duan X, et al (2014) Exogenous expression of marine lectins DlFBL and SpRBL induces cancer cell apoptosis possibly through PRMT5-E2F-1 pathway. Sci Rep 4:4505

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Korn GA (2013) Advanced Dynamic-System Simulation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Horwitz BN, Neiderhiser JM (eds) (2015) Gene-Environment Interplay in Interpersonal Relationships across the Lifespan. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Lam THW, Lee RST (2007) iJADE FreeWalker – An Intelligent Ontology Agent-based Tourist Guiding System. In: Lee RST, Loia V (eds) Computational Intelligence for Agent-based Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 103–125

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SpringerPlus.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Men Conceived Using IVF Have Increased Risk Of Fertility Problems. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) Circumstances Surrounding Contract Award. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barkley WC (2008) Mars rover - Laser focusing and optimization. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2002) Is Tabby Looking a Bit Flabby? A Possible Solution. New York Times 147

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2003; Sotomayor and Schulten 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sotomayor and Schulten 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpringerPlus
AbbreviationSpringerplus
ISSN (online)2193-1801
ScopeMultidisciplinary

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