How to format your references using the SpringerPlus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for SpringerPlus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow N (2008) Nanotechnology: could it be a small world after all? Nature 452:901–904
A journal article with 2 authors
Quinn TC, Overbaugh J (2005) HIV/AIDS in women: an expanding epidemic. Science 308:1582–1583
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee R, Mason A, members of the NTA Network (2014) Is low fertility really a problem? Population aging, dependency, and consumption. Science 346:229–234
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Helenius J, Ng DTW, Marolda CL, et al (2002) Translocation of lipid-linked oligosaccharides across the ER membrane requires Rft1 protein. Nature 415:447–450

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Park S, Guille-Escuret G (2017) Sociobiology vs Socioecology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Sodhi MS (2012) Managing Supply Chain Risk. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Jacobs-Lorena M (2006) Genetic approaches for malaria control. In: Louis C (ed) Bridging laboratory and field research for genetic control of disease vectors. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 53–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for SpringerPlus.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) 7th Grader Builds Braille Printer From Lego. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/7th-grader-builds-lego-braille-printer-then-starts-his-own-business/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Serious Problems Continue to Trouble the Air Traffic Control Work Force. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krometis L-AH (2009) Microbial partitioning in urban stormwaters. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2014) Wagner and Ice Dancers Rally U.S. to Finals. New York Times SP6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blow 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Quinn and Overbaugh 2005; Blow 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Quinn and Overbaugh 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Helenius et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpringerPlus
AbbreviationSpringerplus
ISSN (online)2193-1801
ScopeMultidisciplinary

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