How to format your references using the Crystals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crystals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tully, J.C. Chemistry. Mode-selective control of surface reactions. Science 2006, 312, 1004–1005.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jain, R.K.; Padera, T.P. Development. Lymphatics make the break. Science 2003, 299, 209–210.
A journal article with 3 authors
Noble, M.E.M.; Endicott, J.A.; Johnson, L.N. Protein kinase inhibitors: insights into drug design from structure. Science 2004, 303, 1800–1805.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Paggi, M.; Berardone, I.; Infuso, A.; Corrado, M. Fatigue degradation and electric recovery in Silicon solar cells embedded in photovoltaic modules. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4506.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kriegel, J. Unfairly Labeled; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2016; ISBN 9781119220633.
An edited book
Cognitive Science Perspectives on Verb Representation and Processing; de Almeida, R.G., Manouilidou, C., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319101118.
A chapter in an edited book
Canepa, M. A Surface Scientist’s View on Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. In Surface Science Techniques; Bracco, G., Holst, B., Eds.; Springer Series in Surface Sciences; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 99–135 ISBN 9783642342424.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crystals.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Our Ancestors Were Carnivorous Super-Predators, So Do We Really Have A Choice About Eating Meat? (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Telecommunications: Process by Which Mergers of Local Telephone Companies Are Reviewed; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schneider, S.Z. Mercury sources and cycling processes in the Cape Fear River estuary, North Carolina. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina: Chapel Hill, NC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mann, M. The Other Side of Boredom. New York Times 2015, SR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCrystals
AbbreviationCrystals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-4352
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Inorganic Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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