How to format your references using the Crystals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crystals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trenberth, K.E. Changes in tropical clouds and radiation. Science 2002, 296, 2095.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goonetilleke, N.; McMichael, A.J. Immunology. Antigen processing takes a new direction. Science 2013, 340, 937–938.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wade, J.T.; Hall, D.B.; Struhl, K. The transcription factor Ifh1 is a key regulator of yeast ribosomal protein genes. Nature 2004, 432, 1054–1058.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Park, S.; Lim, B.T.; Kim, B.; Son, H.J.; Chung, D.S. High mobility polymer based on a π-extended benzodithiophene and its application for fast switching transistor and high gain photoconductor. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5482.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Birke, D. Social Networks and their Economics; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2013; ISBN 9781118699638.
An edited book
Climate Change Adaptation Strategies – An Upstream-downstream Perspective; Salzmann, N., Huggel, C., Nussbaumer, S.U., Ziervogel, G., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319407715.
A chapter in an edited book
Dumont, S.; Lebon, F.; Raffa, M.L.; Rizzoni, R.; Welemane, H. Multiscale Modeling of Imperfect Interfaces and Applications. In Computational Methods for Solids and Fluids: Multiscale Analysis, Probability Aspects and Model Reduction; Ibrahimbegovic, A., Ed.; Computational Methods in Applied Sciences; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 81–122 ISBN 9783319279947.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crystals.

Blog post
Fang, J. Earth-like Soils on Mars Suggest Microbial Life Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Educating People at Risk for AIDS; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Magallanes, J. Experiences with formal and informal support: A case study of a female-to-male transgender individual. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Justices’ First Brush With Global Warming. New York Times 2006, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCrystals
AbbreviationCrystals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-4352
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Inorganic Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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