How to format your references using the Crystals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crystals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schleich, W.P. Engineering Decoherence. Nature 2000, 403, 256–257.
A journal article with 2 authors
Younesi, E.; Hofmann-Apitius, M. Biomarker-Guided Translation of Brain Imaging into Disease Pathway Models. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3375.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schaller, M.F.; Wright, J.D.; Kent, D.V. Atmospheric PCO₂ Perturbations Associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Science 2011, 331, 1404–1409.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Prince, J.A.; Rana, D.; Matsuura, T.; Ayyanar, N.; Shanmugasundaram, T.S.; Singh, G. Nanofiber Based Triple Layer Hydro-Philic/-Phobic Membrane--a Solution for Pore Wetting in Membrane Distillation. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6949.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Segura, J.; Hawkins, C.F. CMOS Electronics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471728528.
An edited book
Changing Television Environments: 6th European Conference, EUROITV 2008, Salzburg, Austria, July 3-4, 2008 Proceedings; Tscheligi, M., Obrist, M., Lugmayr, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; Vol. 5066; ISBN 9783540694779.
A chapter in an edited book
Thornalley, P.J.; Rabbani, N. Thiamine in Diabetic Renal Disease: Dietary Insufficiency, Renal Washout, Antistress Gene Response, Therapeutic Supplements, Risk Predictor, and Link to Genetic Susceptibility. In Studies on Renal Disorders; Miyata, T., Eckardt, K.-U., Nangaku, M., Eds.; Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, 2011; pp. 93–104 ISBN 9781607618560.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crystals.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Nepal Earthquake: Such Huge Aftershocks Are Rare Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Telecommunication: Air Force Cost Estimates for Scope Exchange Telephone Systems; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1986;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Day, J.P. Semirelativistic Few Body Problems with Matrix Continued Fraction Methods. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. Theater; Song, Dance and the Devil. New York Times 2016, AR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCrystals
AbbreviationCrystals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-4352
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Inorganic Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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