How to format your references using the Crystals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crystals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pusey, J. Global Darwin: Revolutionary Road. Nature 2009, 462, 162–163.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lyons, T.W.; Reinhard, C.T. Early Earth: Oxygen for Heavy-Metal Fans. Nature 2009, 461, 179–181.
A journal article with 3 authors
Poulsen, C.J.; Tabor, C.; White, J.D. CLIMATE CHANGE. Long-Term Climate Forcing by Atmospheric Oxygen Concentrations. Science 2015, 348, 1238–1241.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, C.; Wei, R.; Jones-Hall, Y.L.; Vittal, R.; Zhang, M.; Liu, W. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Pathway Genes and Interstitial Lung Disease: An Association Study. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4893.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonald, T.; Feuillet, M. Network Performance Analysis; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118602911.
An edited book
Communication Technologies for Vehicles: 6th International Workshop, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2014, Offenburg, Germany, May 6-7, 2014. Proceedings; Sikora, A., Berbineau, M., Vinel, A., Jonsson, M., Pirovano, A., Aguado, M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; Vol. 8435; ISBN 9783319066431.
A chapter in an edited book
Buesching, C.D.; Tinnesand, H.V.; Sin, Y.; Rosell, F.; Burke, T.; Macdonald, D.W. Coding of Group Odor in the Subcaudal Gland Secretion of the European Badger Meles Meles: Chemical Composition and Pouch Microbiota. In Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 13; Schulte, B.A., Goodwin, T.E., Ferkin, M.H., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 45–62 ISBN 9783319220253.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crystals.

Blog post
Taub, B. This Is How Stress Damages Your Brain (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office National Transportation Safety Board: Management and Operational Improvements Found, but Strategy Needed to Utilize Cost Accounting System; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2013;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tablason, J.M. Recollecting. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis, A. Long Island College Hospital Names Choice for the Future. New York Times 2014, A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCrystals
AbbreviationCrystals (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-4352
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Inorganic Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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