How to format your references using the City, Culture and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City, Culture and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2003). Upping the ante. Nature, 424(6950), 857.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kondo, S., & Miura, T. (2010). Reaction-diffusion model as a framework for understanding biological pattern formation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5999), 1616–1620.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, X., Roberti, R., & Blobel, G. (2015). Structure of an integral membrane sterol reductase from Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum. Nature, 517(7532), 104–107.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Guo, L., Liang, P., Zhou, X., & Gao, X. (2014). Novel mutations and mutation combinations of ryanodine receptor in a chlorantraniliprole resistant population of Plutella xylostella (L.). Scientific Reports, 4, 6924.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gustafsson, F. (2001). Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Booth, A., Brown, S. L., Landale, N. S., Manning, W. D., & McHale, S. M. (Eds.). (2012). Early Adulthood in a Family Context (Vol. 2). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wilson, R. J., & Miner, M. H. (2016). Measurement of Male Sexual Arousal and Interest Using Penile Plethysmography and Viewing Time. In D. R. Laws & W. O’Donohue (Eds.), Treatment of Sex Offenders: Strengths and Weaknesses in Assessment and Intervention (pp. 107–131). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City, Culture and Society.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, September 1). Fastest Known Organism Is A Fungus - Check It Out In Slow Motion. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Aviation Security: Further Steps Needed to Strengthen the Security of Commercial Airport Perimeters and Access Controls (GAO-04-728). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Payne, N. A. (2010). Adults who have learning disabilities: Transition from GED to postsecondary activities [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L. (2011, September 11). Imps of the Perverse. New York Times, M250.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kondo & Miura, 2010; Smaglik, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kondo & Miura, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Li et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Guo et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCity, Culture and Society
AbbreviationCity Cult. Soc.
ISSN (print)1877-9166
ScopeEconomics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)
General Social Sciences
Urban Studies

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