How to format your references using the City, Culture and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City, Culture and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Puglisi, J. D. (2015). Synthetic biology: Ribosomal ties that bind. Nature, 524(7563), 45–46.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mathôt, S., & Theeuwes, J. (2013). A reinvestigation of the reference frame of the tilt-adaptation aftereffect. Scientific Reports, 3, 1152.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barsh, G. S., Farooqi, I. S., & O’Rahilly, S. (2000). Genetics of body-weight regulation. Nature, 404(6778), 644–651.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, S. Q., Song, L. S., Lakatta, E. G., & Cheng, H. (2001). Ca2+ signalling between single L-type Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors in heart cells. Nature, 410(6828), 592–596.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Strohfeldt, K. A. (2015). Essentials of Inorganic Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kollias, S., Stafylopatis, A., Duch, W., & Oja, E. (Eds.). (2006). Artificial Neural Networks – ICANN 2006: 16th International Conference, Athens, Greece, September 10-14, 2006. Proceedings, Part II (Vol. 4132). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hulbert, G. M., Ma, Z.-D., & Wang, J. (2005). Gluing for Dynamic Simulation of Distributed Mechanical Systems. In J. A. C. Ambrósio (Ed.), Advances in Computational Multibody Systems (pp. 69–94). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City, Culture and Society.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2017, February 28). How Science Can Make Your Baby Sleep Better. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Air Traffic Control: FAA’s Transition of Communications System to Digital Technology (IMTEC-91-77FS). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Friedman, D. E. (2017). Characterization of Organic Matter in Suspended Sediments Via Pyrolysis and Oxidation [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hernández, J. C., & Drucker, J. (2017, May 19). Wooing China Investors With the Trump Name And Offers of U.S. Visas. New York Times, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Puglisi, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Mathôt & Theeuwes, 2013; Puglisi, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mathôt & Theeuwes, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Barsh et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleCity, Culture and Society
AbbreviationCity Cult. Soc.
ISSN (print)1877-9166
ScopeEconomics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)
General Social Sciences
Urban Studies

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