How to format your references using the City, Culture and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City, Culture and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2010). From maps to mechanisms through neuroimaging of schizophrenia. Nature, 468(7321), 194–202.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miyanari, Y., & Torres-Padilla, M.-E. (2012). Control of ground-state pluripotency by allelic regulation of Nanog. Nature, 483(7390), 470–473.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boyd, R., Gintis, H., & Bowles, S. (2010). Coordinated punishment of defectors sustains cooperation and can proliferate when rare. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5978), 617–620.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Paul-Prasanth, B., Bhandari, R. K., Kobayashi, T., Horiguchi, R., Kobayashi, Y., Nakamoto, M., Shibata, Y., Sakai, F., Nakamura, M., & Nagahama, Y. (2013). Estrogen oversees the maintenance of the female genetic program in terminally differentiated gonochorists. Scientific Reports, 3, 2862.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perini, K., & Sabbion, P. (2017). Urban Sustainability and River Restoration. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Li, Y. (2016). Interconnected Power Systems: Wide-Area Dynamic Monitoring and Control Applications (D. Yang, F. Liu, Y. Cao, & C. Rehtanz, Eds.; 1st ed. 2016). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cerrato, L., Akira, H., Campbell, N., & Luz, S. (2016). A Speech-to-Speech, Machine Translation Mediated Map Task: An Exploratory Study. In J. F. Quesada, F.-J. Martín Mateos, & T. Lopez-Soto (Eds.), Future and Emergent Trends in Language Technology: First International Workshop, FETLT 2015, Seville, Spain, November 19-20, 2015, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 53–64). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City, Culture and Society.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, October 10). Scientists Identify A Mechanism That Facilitates Brain Repair Following Stroke. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Issues Raised concerning the Report, “The National School Lunch Program: Is It Working?” (PAD-78-43). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Works, R. F. (2016). Econometric modeling of exchange rate determinants by market classification: An empirical analysis of Japan and South Korea using the sticky-price monetary theory [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L. (2017, March 14). Trump’s Often Misleading Critiques of the Affordable Care Act. New York Times, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Meyer-Lindenberg, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Meyer-Lindenberg, 2010; Miyanari & Torres-Padilla, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Miyanari & Torres-Padilla, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Boyd et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Paul-Prasanth et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCity, Culture and Society
AbbreviationCity Cult. Soc.
ISSN (print)1877-9166
ScopeEconomics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)
General Social Sciences
Urban Studies

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