How to format your references using the City, Culture and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City, Culture and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hublin, J.-J. (2014). Anthropology. How to build a Neandertal. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6190), 1338–1339.
A journal article with 2 authors
Filippov, A., & Gorb, S. N. (2013). Frictional-anisotropy-based systems in biology: structural diversity and numerical model. Scientific Reports, 3, 1240.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuwamura, T., Kadota, T., & Suzuki, S. (2014). Testing the low-density hypothesis for reversed sex change in polygynous fish: experiments in Labroides dimidiatus. Scientific Reports, 4, 4369.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Seifermann, S. M., Réthoré, C., Muller, T., & Bräse, S. (2013). Soccer goes BOXing: synthetic access to novel [6:0] hexakis[(bisoxazolinyl)methano]fullerenes. Scientific Reports, 3, 2817.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holsclaw, G. (2016). Transcending Subjects. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Piccioli, A. (2015). Bones: Orthopaedic Pathologies in Roman Imperial Age (V. Gazzaniga & P. Catalano, Eds.; 1st ed. 2015). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Shibusawa, R., Otsuka, T., & Sugawara, T. (2016). Spread of Cooperation in Complex Agent Networks Based on Expectation of Cooperation. In M. Baldoni, A. K. Chopra, T. C. Son, K. Hirayama, & P. Torroni (Eds.), PRIMA 2016: Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems: 19th International Conference, Phuket, Thailand, August 22-26, 2016, Proceedings (pp. 76–91). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City, Culture and Society.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016, July 21). This Awesome Time-Lapse Video Shows One Year In The Life Of Earth. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope: Knowledge-Based Acquisition Approach Key to Addressing Program Challenges (GAO-06-634). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hilmey, D. G. (2006). Synthesis and Study of Heteroatomic Spirocyclic Scaffolds [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lardner, G., Jr. (2010, November 24). No Country for Second Chances. New York Times, A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hublin, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Filippov & Gorb, 2013; Hublin, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Filippov & Gorb, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Kuwamura et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Seifermann et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCity, Culture and Society
AbbreviationCity Cult. Soc.
ISSN (print)1877-9166
ScopeEconomics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)
General Social Sciences
Urban Studies

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