How to format your references using the City, Culture and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City, Culture and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ellis, J. (2007). Beyond the standard model with the LHC. Nature, 448(7151), 297–301.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eberl, G., & Littman, D. R. (2004). Thymic origin of intestinal alphabeta T cells revealed by fate mapping of RORgammat+ cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5681), 248–251.
A journal article with 3 authors
Serizawa, T., Hamada, K.-I., & Akashi, M. (2004). Polymerization within a molecular-scale stereoregular template. Nature, 429(6987), 52–55.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gigant, B., Wang, C., Ravelli, R. B. G., Roussi, F., Steinmetz, M. O., Curmi, P. A., Sobel, A., & Knossow, M. (2005). Structural basis for the regulation of tubulin by vinblastine. Nature, 435(7041), 519–522.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ni, Z., Pacoret, C., Benosman, R., & Régnier, S. (2014). Haptic Feedback Teleoperation of Optical Tweezers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
McCarty, L. B. (2016). Applied Soil Physical Properties, Drainage, and Irrigation Strategies (L. R. Hubbard Jr. & V. Quisenberry, Eds.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Cai, K., Niu, J., & Parsons, S. (2008). Using Evolutionary Game-Theory to Analyse the Performance of Trading Strategies in a Continuous Double Auction Market. In K. Tuyls, A. Nowe, Z. Guessoum, & D. Kudenko (Eds.), Adaptive Agents and Multi-Agent Systems III. Adaptation and Multi-Agent Learning: 5th, 6th, and 7th European Symposium, ALAMAS 2005-2007 on Adaptive and Learning Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 44–59). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City, Culture and Society.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, October 14). MAVEN Returns First Light Data From Mars. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Space Acquisitions: Development and Oversight Challenges in Delivering Improved Space Situational Awareness Capabilities (GAO-11-545). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amini, B. (2015). Linear Matrix Inequality Method for Periodic Systems [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, April 13). Chasing Trane: The John Coltrane Documentary. New York Times, C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ellis, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Eberl & Littman, 2004; Ellis, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Eberl & Littman, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Serizawa et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gigant et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleCity, Culture and Society
AbbreviationCity Cult. Soc.
ISSN (print)1877-9166
ScopeEconomics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)
General Social Sciences
Urban Studies

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