How to format your references using the BMC Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Tielens AGGM. Planetary science. Peering into stardust. Science. 2003;300:68–71.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wapenaar K, Snieder R. Determinism: Chaos tamed. Nature. 2007;447:643.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ferain I, Colinge CA, Colinge J-P. Multigate transistors as the future of classical metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. Nature. 2011;479:310–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lee H-H, Norris A, Weiss JB, Frasch M. Jelly belly protein activates the receptor tyrosine kinase Alk to specify visceral muscle pioneers. Nature. 2003;425:507–12.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Li F. Developing Chemical Information Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1. Castillo-Chavez C, Chen H, Lober WB, Thurmond M, Zeng D, editors. Infectious Disease Informatics and Biosurveillance: Research, Systems and Case Studies. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Arnold VI. On the topology of three-dimensional steady flows of an ideal fluid. In: Givental AB, Khesin BA, Varchenko AN, Vassiliev VA, Viro OY, editors. Vladimir I. Arnold - Collected Works: Hydrodynamics, Bifurcation Theory, and Algebraic Geometry 1965-1972. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 25–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Neurology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Whether Mozart Or Madonna, Music Can Help You Recover From Surgery. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/whether-mozart-or-madonna-music-can-help-you-recover-surgery/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Guaranteed Student Loans: Legislative and Regulatory Changes Needed To Reduce Default Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Duan C. Dynamic Analysis of Dry Friction Path in a Torsional System. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University; 2004.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kenigsberg B. Film Series. New York Times. 2017;:C25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Neurology
AbbreviationBMC Neurol.
ISSN (online)1471-2377
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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