How to format your references using the BMC Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Tegmark M. Many lives in many worlds. Nature. 2007;448:23–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shah RR, Abbott NL. Principles for measurement of chemical exposure based on recognition-driven anchoring transitions in liquid crystals. Science. 2001;293:1296–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Reimand J, Wagih O, Bader GD. The mutational landscape of phosphorylation signaling in cancer. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2651.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kitamura N, Kitahara M, Shoji M, Miyoshi Y, Hasegawa H, Nakamura S, et al. Direct measurements of two-way wave-particle energy transfer in a collisionless space plasma. Science. 2018;361:1000–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Raz D, Juhola A, Serrat-Fernandez J, Galis A. Fast and Efficient Context-Aware Services. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. Halpin T, Nurcan S, Krogstie J, Soffer P, Proper E, Schmidt R, et al., editors. Enterprise, Business-Process and Information Systems Modeling: 12th International Conference, BPMDS 2011, and 16th International Conference, EMMSAD 2011, held at CAiSE 2011, London, UK, June 20-21, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ainsworth SA, Taxman FS. Creating Simulation Parameter Inputs with Existing Data Sources: Estimating Offender Risks, Needs, and Recidivism. In: Taxman FS, Pattavina A, editors. Simulation Strategies to Reduce Recidivism: Risk Need Responsivity (RNR) Modeling for the Criminal Justice System. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 115–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Neurology.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Event Horizon Telescope To Begin Most Detailed Observation Of A Black Hole in April. IFLScience. 2017.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. International Space Station (ISS) - Ongoing Assessments for Life Extension Appear to be Supported. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Revzin NT. From selling rags to wearing riches: German Jews’ economic progress in the first half of the nineteenth century. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Feeney K. Old-Time Staples and Sloppy Joes. New York Times. 2007;:NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Neurology
AbbreviationBMC Neurol.
ISSN (online)1471-2377
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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