How to format your references using the BMC Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Nabel GJ. Immunology. Close to the edge: neutralizing the HIV-1 envelope. Science. 2005;308:1878–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Williams LE, Bargh JA. Experiencing physical warmth promotes interpersonal warmth. Science. 2008;322:606–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Norell MA, Makovicky PJ, Currie PJ. Palaeontology. The beaks of ostrich dinosaurs. Nature. 2001;412:873–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Palmer TM, Stanton ML, Young TP, Goheen JR, Pringle RM, Karban R. Breakdown of an ant-plant mutualism follows the loss of large herbivores from an African savanna. Science. 2008;319:192–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hannam J. What Everyone Needs to Know about Tax. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Correa JR, Hevia A, Kiwi M, editors. LATIN 2006: Theoretical Informatics: 7th Latin American Symposium, Valdivia, Chile, March 20-24, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hendricks VF, Hansen PG. Informational Cascades and Lemmings. In: Hansen PG, editor. Infostorms: Why do we “like”? Explaining individual behavior on the social net. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 61–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Neurology.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Bonobo Study Reveals Our Ancestors Likely Had Less Body Fat and More Muscle Mass. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Alternatives for Funding a GI Bill. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Warwick-Smith KM. Remembering Prudence: Tracking the Iconography of a Cardinal Virtue to Her Resurgence in Depth Psychology. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Borjas G. The Immigration Debate We Need. New York Times. 2017;:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Neurology
AbbreviationBMC Neurol.
ISSN (online)1471-2377
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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