How to format your references using the Sports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carroll, S.B. Chance and Necessity: The Evolution of Morphological Complexity and Diversity. Nature 2001, 409, 1102–1109.
A journal article with 2 authors
Evans, J.W.; Thiel, P.A. Chemistry. A Little Chemistry Helps the Big Get Bigger. Science 2010, 330, 599–600.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zimov, S.A.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Chapin, F.S., 3rd Climate Change. Permafrost and the Global Carbon Budget. Science 2006, 312, 1612–1613.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Leo, N.; Carolus, V.; White, J.S.; Kenzelmann, M.; Hudl, M.; Tolédano, P.; Honda, T.; Kimura, T.; Ivanov, S.A.; Weil, M.; et al. Magnetoelectric Inversion of Domain Patterns. Nature 2018, 560, 466–470.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray, K.A.; Paschkewitz, J.J. Next Generation HALT and HASS; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2016; ISBN 9781118700228.
An edited book
Yeluri, R. Building the Infrastructure for Cloud Security: A Solutions View; Castro-Leon, E., Ed.; Apress: Berkeley, CA, 2014; ISBN 9781430261452.
A chapter in an edited book
Hess, A.; Nussbaumer, M.; Hlavacs, H.; Hummel, K.A. Automatic Adaptation and Analysis of SIP Headers Using Decision Trees. In Principles, Systems and Applications of IP Telecommunications. Services and Security for Next Generation Networks: Second International Conference, IPTComm 2008, Heidelberg, Germany, July 1-2, 2008. Revised Selected Papers; Schulzrinne, H., State, R., Niccolini, S., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp. 69–89 ISBN 9783540890539.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Paris Agreement Will Add $19 Trillion To World Economy If America Sticks With It (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Assessment of the Teacher Corps Program at the University of Southern California and Participating Schools in Tulare County Serving Rural-Migrant Children; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1971;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolzinger, R. Strengthening Career and Technical Education in the California Community College System during the Financial and Labor Market Crisis. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, A.L.; David Goodman, J. Brooklyn Man Is Sought in Two Deaths at Hotels. New York Times 2015, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSports
ISSN (online)2075-4663

Other styles