How to format your references using the Sports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Toomre, J. Solar Physics. Order amidst Turbulence. Science 2002, 296, 64–65.
A journal article with 2 authors
Quellmalz, E.S.; Pellegrino, J.W. Technology and Testing. Science 2009, 323, 75–79.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shubin, N.H.; Daeschler, E.B.; Jenkins, F.A., Jr The Pectoral Fin of Tiktaalik Roseae and the Origin of the Tetrapod Limb. Nature 2006, 440, 764–771.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pianta, R.C.; Belsky, J.; Houts, R.; Morrison, F.; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Early Child Care Research Network Teaching. Opportunities to Learn in America’s Elementary Classrooms. Science 2007, 315, 1795–1796.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sallaberry, C. Geographical Information Retrieval in Textual Corpora; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ USA, 2013; ISBN 9781118790113.
An edited book
Doerffer, P. Unsteady Effects of Shock Wave Induced Separation; Hirsch, C., Dussauge, J.-P., Babinsky, H., Barakos, G.N., Eds.; Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; Vol. 114; ISBN 9783642030031.
A chapter in an edited book
Schmahl, W.W.; Kocsis, B.; Toncala, A.; Grupe, G. Mineralogic Characterisation of Archaeological Bone. In Isotopic Landscapes in Bioarchaeology; Grupe, G., McGlynn, G.C., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2016; pp. 91–110 ISBN 9783662483381.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Scared Out Of Your Mind: Halloween, Fear And The Brain Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Security: TSA’s Staffing Allocation Model Is Useful for Allocating Staff among Airports, but Its Assumptions Should Be Systematically Reassessed; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Plosky, W.D. An Investment Case for Addressing Social Drivers of Structural Stigma and Discrimination Against Refugees in Resource-Poor Urban Areas. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University: New York, NY, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L.F. For Police Recruits, Training in Tolerance. New York Times 2007, LI11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSports
ISSN (online)2075-4663

Other styles