How to format your references using the Sports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sharp, T. Earth Science. Bridgmanite--Named at Last. Science 2014, 346, 1057–1058.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chang, G.; Roth, C.B. Structure of MsbA from E. Coli: A Homolog of the Multidrug Resistance ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters. Science 2001, 293, 1793–1800.
A journal article with 3 authors
Klein, Y.; Efrati, E.; Sharon, E. Shaping of Elastic Sheets by Prescription of Non-Euclidean Metrics. Science 2007, 315, 1116–1120.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Aspuru-Guzik, A.; Dutoi, A.D.; Love, P.J.; Head-Gordon, M. Simulated Quantum Computation of Molecular Energies. Science 2005, 309, 1704–1707.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Markley, N.G. Principles of Differential Equations; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2004; ISBN 9781118033289.
An edited book
Li, Y. Bio-Based Polyols and Polyurethanes; Luo, X., Hu, S., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science; 1st ed. 2015.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319215389.
A chapter in an edited book
Dorey, P.; Garnett, M. Welfare Reform. In The British Coalition Government, 2010-2015: A Marriage of Inconvenience; Garnett, M., Ed.; Palgrave Macmillan UK: London, 2016; pp. 137–178 ISBN 9781137023759.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports.

Blog post
Fang, J. How Do Chameleons Change The Color Of Their Skin? (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Space Shuttle: Human Capital and Safety Upgrade Challenges Require Continued Attention; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldgof, G.M. Drug Target Discovery Using Designer Drug Sensitive Yeast. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego: La Jolla, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sachs, S. Egyptian’s Arrest Seen as Penalty for Criticism. New York Times 2000, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSports
ISSN (online)2075-4663

Other styles