How to format your references using the Sports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chien, K.R. Regenerative Biology: Heartbroken Embryos Heal. Nature 2013, 498, 439–440.
A journal article with 2 authors
Alle, H.; Geiger, J.R.P. Combined Analog and Action Potential Coding in Hippocampal Mossy Fibers. Science 2006, 311, 1290–1293.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thulasiram, H.V.; Erickson, H.K.; Poulter, C.D. Chimeras of Two Isoprenoid Synthases Catalyze All Four Coupling Reactions in Isoprenoid Biosynthesis. Science 2007, 316, 73–76.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yang, Z.; Xu, Y.; Xu, T.; Hoy, C.W.; Handwerker, D.A.; Chen, G.; Northoff, G.; Zuo, X.-N.; Bandettini, P.A. Brain Network Informed Subject Community Detection in Early-Onset Schizophrenia. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5549.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Windom, C.A., Sr.; Gaidhani, H.; Fontana, A. Virtualizing; Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2010; ISBN 9781118255988.
An edited book
Transitions Before the Transition: Evolution and Stability in the Middle Paleolithic and Middle Stone Age; Hovers, E., Kuhn, S.L., Eds.; Interdisciplinary Contributions To Archaeology; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2006; ISBN 9780387246581.
A chapter in an edited book
Wikarek, J.; Sitek, P. A Multi-Level and Multi-Agent Approach to Modeling and Solving Supply Chain Problems. In Highlights of Practical Applications of Scalable Multi-Agent Systems. The PAAMS Collection: International Workshops of PAAMS 2016, Sevilla, Spain, June 1-3, 2016. Proceedings; Bajo, J., Escalona, M.J., Giroux, S., Hoffa-Dąbrowska, P., Julián, V., Novais, P., Sánchez-Pi, N., Unland, R., Azambuja-Silveira, R., Eds.; Communications in Computer and Information Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 49–60 ISBN 9783319393865.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Chaotic Orbit Of Halley’s Comet Explained (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Additional Costs Incurred in Maintaining the National Industrial Equipment Reserve (NIER); U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1973;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morris, L. Evolving the Leadership Model of the American Theatre to Forge a Fiscally and Artistically Secure Future. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J. Europe Moves to Collect Taxes From Tech Giants. New York Times 2017, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSports
ISSN (online)2075-4663

Other styles