How to format your references using the Sports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bilkey, D.K. Neuroscience. In the place space. Science 2004, 305, 1245–1246.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hector, A.; Bagchi, R. Biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality. Nature 2007, 448, 188–190.
A journal article with 3 authors
Purohit, P.; Mitra, A.; Auerbach, A. A stepwise mechanism for acetylcholine receptor channel gating. Nature 2007, 446, 930–933.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mortezaei, N.; Singh, B.; Bullitt, E.; Uhlin, B.E.; Andersson, M. P-fimbriae in the presence of anti-PapA antibodies: new insight of antibodies action against pathogens. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3393.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
de Klerk, A. Fischer-Tropsch Refining; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2011; ISBN 9783527635603.
An edited book
De Silva, A.M. Grammar-Based Feature Generation for Time-Series Prediction; Leong, P.H.W., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology; Springer: Singapore, 2015; ISBN 9789812874108.
A chapter in an edited book
Velarde, G.; Santamaría, N.C. KEY ASPECTS ON THE NON-PROLIFERATION MEASURES. In Countering Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism; Apikyan, S., Diamond, D., Eds.; NATO Security through Science Series; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2006; pp. 85–94 ISBN 9781402048975.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports.

Blog post
Fang, J. Killer Squirrel has World’s Bushiest Tail Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Transportation Disadvantaged Populations: Nonemergency Medical Transportation Not Well Coordinated, and Additional Federal Leadership Needed; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2014;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thiagarajan, T.T. A Simple and Effective Peak-To-Average Power Ratio Reduction Approach Based on Iterative Companding Transform and Filtering Framework of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Signal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Advice to New Chief From the Lesser of Two Equals: Call Me Nino. New York Times 2005, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSports
ISSN (online)2075-4663

Other styles