How to format your references using the Cancers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ackland, G. Materials Science. Controlling Radiation Damage. Science 2010, 327, 1587–1588.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goldstein, J.L.; Brown, M.S. History of Science. A Golden Era of Nobel Laureates. Science 2012, 338, 1033–1034.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burtally, N.; King, P.J.; Swift, M.R. Spontaneous Air-Driven Separation in Vertically Vibrated Fine Granular Mixtures. Science 2002, 295, 1877–1879.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gaillard, F.; Malki, M.; Iacono-Marziano, G.; Pichavant, M.; Scaillet, B. Carbonatite Melts and Electrical Conductivity in the Asthenosphere. Science 2008, 322, 1363–1365.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burgess, M. Analytical Network and System Administration; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2005; ISBN 9780470861073.
An edited book
Midlöv, P. Drug-Related Problems in the Elderly; Eriksson, T., Kragh, A., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2009; ISBN 9789048124459.
A chapter in an edited book
Hrušovský, M.; Noeres, K. Exploring the IT-enabled Optimisation Potential of Cruise Excursions. In Cruise Management: Information and Decision Support Systems; Papathanassis, A., Breitner, M.H., Schoen, C., Guhr, N., Eds.; Gabler Verlag: Wiesbaden, 2012; pp. 105–113 ISBN 9783834932723.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancers.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. The Giant Rings Of An Exoplanet Are Spinning The Wrong Way Round (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office [Comments on Proposed Changes to DAR Cost Principles and Internal Procedures]; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1982;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aggarwal, E. South Asian Women’s Attitudes toward Help-Seeking Behaviors. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. TV’s United States of ‘Sieg Heil.’ New York Times 2016, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancers
AbbreviationCancers (Basel)
ISSN (online)2072-6694
ScopeCancer Research

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