How to format your references using the Cancers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levinger, N.E. Chemistry. Water in Confinement. Science 2002, 298, 1722–1723.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sine, S.M.; Engel, A.G. Recent Advances in Cys-Loop Receptor Structure and Function. Nature 2006, 440, 448–455.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richmond, J.E.; Weimer, R.M.; Jorgensen, E.M. An Open Form of Syntaxin Bypasses the Requirement for UNC-13 in Vesicle Priming. Nature 2001, 412, 338–341.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Uesugi, E.; Goto, H.; Eguchi, R.; Fujiwara, A.; Kubozono, Y. Electric Double-Layer Capacitance between an Ionic Liquid and Few-Layer Graphene. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1595.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The American Ceramic Society Progress in Nanotechnology; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2009; ISBN 9780470588246.
An edited book
Foodinformatics: Applications of Chemical Information to Food Chemistry; Martinez-Mayorga, K., Medina-Franco, J.L., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; ISBN 9783319102252.
A chapter in an edited book
Ho-Yan, B.; Lubitz, W.D.; Ehlers, C.; Hertlein, J. Field Investigations in Cameroon Towards a More Appropriate Design of a Renewable Energy Pico Hydro System for Rural Electrification. In Technologies for Sustainable Development: A Way to Reduce Poverty?; Bolay, J.-C., Hostettler, S., Hazboun, E., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 43–56 ISBN 9783319006383.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancers.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Scientists Discover Evolutionary Advantage For Homosexuality Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office School Facilities: Accessibility for the Disabled Still an Issue; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1995;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Royalty, A.R. U.S. Military Advisors in Iraq: A Phenomenological Research Study on the Role of National Culture on Tactical Decision-Making during Wartime. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J. Short, Hard Climb (So He Hoped). New York Times 2016, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancers
AbbreviationCancers (Basel)
ISSN (online)2072-6694
ScopeCancer Research

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