How to format your references using the Cancers citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancers. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van den Broek, P. Using texts in science education: cognitive processes and knowledge representation. Science 2010, 328, 453–456.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stegemann, S.; Bock, R. Exchange of genetic material between cells in plant tissue grafts. Science 2009, 324, 649–651.
A journal article with 3 authors
Okita, K.; Ichisaka, T.; Yamanaka, S. Generation of germline-competent induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature 2007, 448, 313–317.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
De Smaele, E.; Zazzeroni, F.; Papa, S.; Nguyen, D.U.; Jin, R.; Jones, J.; Cong, R.; Franzoso, G. Induction of gadd45beta by NF-kappaB downregulates pro-apoptotic JNK signalling. Nature 2001, 414, 308–313.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blair, R.; Regenstein, J.M. Genetic Modification and Food Quality; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2015; ISBN 9781118823644.
An edited book
McCoach, D.B. Instrument Development in the Affective Domain: School and Corporate Applications; Gable, R.K., Madura, J.P., Eds.; 3rd ed. 2013.; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; ISBN 9781461471349.
A chapter in an edited book
Roskos, K.; Burstein, K. Print to Pixel: Foundations of an E-Book Instructional Model in Early Literacy. In Technology as a Support for Literacy Achievements for Children at Risk; Shamir, A., Korat, O., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2013; pp. 47–57 ISBN 9789400751187.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancers.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Plant-Eating Dinosaur Success Was In The Jaws Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Higher Education: Federal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Programs and Related Trends; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glazer, K. Imagining a constructionist game-based pedagogical model: Using tabletop role-playing game creation to enhance literature education in high school English classes. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. A Produce Auction With an Eye to Survival. New York Times 2008, NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancers
AbbreviationCancers (Basel)
ISSN (online)2072-6694
ScopeCancer Research

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