How to format your references using the Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Egues, J. C. (2005). Physics. Fingerprinting spin qubits. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5734), 565–567.
A journal article with 2 authors
McNamara, A. K., & Zhong, S. (2005). Thermochemical structures beneath Africa and the Pacific Ocean. Nature, 437(7062), 1136–1139.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lopinski, G. P., Wayner, D. D., & Wolkow, R. A. (2000). Self-directed growth of molecular nanostructures on silicon. Nature, 406(6791), 48–51.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Barnard, J. S., Sharp, J., Tong, J. R., & Midgley, P. A. (2006). High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of dislocations. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5785), 319.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGuiggan, P. (2005). GPRS in Practice. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hsiao, G. C. (2008). Boundary Integral Equations. (W. L. Wendland, Ed.) (Vol. 164). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Einarsdóttir, D. M., Arnaldsson, A., Óskarsson, F., & Jónsson, H. (2012). Path Optimization with Application to Tunneling. In K. Jónasson (Ed.), Applied Parallel and Scientific Computing: 10th International Conference, PARA 2010, Reykjavík, Iceland, June 6-9, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Part II (pp. 45–55). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015, January 27). How To Win At Rock-Paper-Scissors With Science. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Public Transportation: Survey of Project Sponsors on Their Transit Projects and Experience with the Federal Transit Administration’s New Starts and Small Starts Programs (GAO-07-927SP, July 2007), an E-supplement to GAO-07-917 (No. GAO-07-927SP). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhang, Y. (2017). A Grant Proposal for Mindfulness-Based Self-Care Training for Child Welfare Workers (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2009, November 22). Where to Fill Up the Table. New York Times, p. NJ13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Egues, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Egues, 2005; McNamara & Zhong, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McNamara & Zhong, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Lopinski, Wayner, & Wolkow, 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Barnard, Sharp, Tong, & Midgley, 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology
AbbreviationSport Exerc. Perform. Psychol.
ISSN (print)2157-3905
ISSN (online)2157-3913
ScopeApplied Psychology
Social Psychology
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles