How to format your references using the Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lee, J. T. (2012). Epigenetic regulation by long noncoding RNAs. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6113), 1435–1439.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sazanov, L. A., & Hinchliffe, P. (2006). Structure of the hydrophilic domain of respiratory complex I from Thermus thermophilus. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5766), 1430–1436.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cosgaya, J. M., Chan, J. R., & Shooter, E. M. (2002). The neurotrophin receptor p75NTR as a positive modulator of myelination. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5596), 1245–1248.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mahecha, M. D., Reichstein, M., Carvalhais, N., Lasslop, G., Lange, H., Seneviratne, S. I., … Richardson, A. D. (2010). Global convergence in the temperature sensitivity of respiration at ecosystem level. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5993), 838–840.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yaacoub, E. E., & Dawy, Z. (2012). Resource Allocation in Uplink OFDMA Wireless Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kaufman, H. L., Wadler, S., & Antman, K. (Eds.). (2008). Molecular Targeting in Oncology. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
van den Bosch, D. D., van der Seijs, M. V., & de Klerk, D. (2014). Validation of Blocked-Force Transfer Path Analysis with Compensation for Test Bench Dynamics. In M. Allen, R. Mayes, & D. Rixen (Eds.), Dynamics of Coupled Structures, Volume 1: Proceedings of the 32nd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2014 (pp. 37–49). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 20). River Flows Drop As Carbon Dioxide Creates Thirstier Plants.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). NASA’s Earth Observing System: Estimated Funding Requirements (No. NSIAD-95-175). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Uzoff, P. P. (2014). Virtual school teacher’s science efficacy beliefs: The effects of community of practice on science-teaching efficacy beliefs (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
James, S. (2017, April 20). Take Your Baby to Work. New York Times, p. SR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lee, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Lee, 2012; Sazanov & Hinchliffe, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sazanov & Hinchliffe, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Cosgaya, Chan, & Shooter, 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mahecha et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleSport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology
AbbreviationSport Exerc. Perform. Psychol.
ISSN (print)2157-3905
ISSN (online)2157-3913
ScopeApplied Psychology
Social Psychology
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles