How to format your references using the Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wineland, D. (2011). Norman Ramsey (1915-2011). Nature, 480(7376), 182.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kuroda, H., & Maliga, P. (2003). The plastid clpP1 protease gene is essential for plant development. Nature, 425(6953), 86–89.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cziczo, D. J., Thomson, D. S., & Murphy, D. M. (2001). Ablation, flux, and atmospheric implications of meteors inferred from stratospheric aerosol. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5509), 1772–1775.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Romero, H. E., Bolton, K., Rosén, A., & Eklund, P. C. (2005). Atom collision-induced resistivity of carbon nanotubes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5706), 89–93.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bi, J. (2015). Sensory Discrimination Tests and Measurements. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Babin, G., Stanoevska-Slabeva, K., & Kropf, P. (Eds.). (2011). E-Technologies: Transformation in a Connected World: 5th International Conference, MCETECH 2011, Les Diablerets, Switzerland, January 23-26, 2011, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 78). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Boskou, S., & Engelbrekt, K. (2016). Keeping a Low Profile: Greek Strategic Culture and International Military Operations. In M. Britz (Ed.), European Participation in International Operations: The Role of Strategic Culture (pp. 77–99). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, July 11). Man-Made Climate Change Led To Hundreds Of Heatwave Deaths In Paris. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). U.S.-Korea Fighter Coproduction Program (T-NSIAD-90-29). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mackay, E. A. (2009). Title I funding allocation of reserve funds after increased standards for academic proficiency under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2015, December 17). An Early Admirer of ‘Star Wars.’ New York Times, C32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wineland, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Kuroda & Maliga, 2003; Wineland, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kuroda & Maliga, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Cziczo et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Romero et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology
AbbreviationSport Exerc. Perform. Psychol.
ISSN (print)2157-3905
ISSN (online)2157-3913
ScopeApplied Psychology
Social Psychology
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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