How to format your references using the Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Karnik, R. N. (2014). Materials science: Breakthrough for protons. Nature, 516(7530), 173–175.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gray, R. D., & Atkinson, Q. D. (2003). Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin. Nature, 426(6965), 435–439.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duncan, K., Sadanand, A., & Davachi, L. (2012). Memory’s penumbra: episodic memory decisions induce lingering mnemonic biases. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6093), 485–487.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhu, J., Özdemir, S. K., Yilmaz, H., Peng, B., Dong, M., Tomes, M., Carmon, T., & Yang, L. (2014). Interfacing whispering-gallery microresonators and free space light with cavity enhanced Rayleigh scattering. Scientific Reports, 4, 6396.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, R. A. (2012). Extreme Tissue Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gairing, M., & Savani, R. (Eds.). (2016). Algorithmic Game Theory: 9th International Symposium, SAGT 2016, Liverpool, UK, September 19–21, 2016, Proceedings (Vol. 9928). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Brown, A., & Green, T. (2013). Issues and Trends in Instructional Technology: Despite Lean Times, Continued Interest and Opportunity in K-12, Business, and Higher Education. In M. Orey, S. A. Jones, & R. M. Branch (Eds.), Educational Media and Technology Yearbook: Volume 37 (pp. 55–71). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, May 12). Edible Silk Coating Stops Fruit And Veg Going Moldy. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Highway Funding: Problems With Highway Trust Fund Information Can Affect State Highway Funds (RCED/AIMD-00-148). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rivers, M. (2012). Bridging the knowledge gap between the Baby Boomers and the multigenerations [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L. (2012, April 1). The Insider. New York Times, M222.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Karnik, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gray & Atkinson, 2003; Karnik, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gray & Atkinson, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Duncan et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology
AbbreviationSport Exerc. Perform. Psychol.
ISSN (print)2157-3905
ISSN (online)2157-3913
ScopeApplied Psychology
Social Psychology
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles