How to format your references using the Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Anderson, B. L. (2012). Psychology. Bird-brained illusionists. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6066), 292–293.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thiele, A., & Stoner, G. (2003). Neuronal synchrony does not correlate with motion coherence in cortical area MT. Nature, 421(6921), 366–370.
A journal article with 3 authors
Piras, V., Tomita, M., & Selvarajoo, K. (2014). Transcriptome-wide variability in single embryonic development cells. Scientific Reports, 4, 7137.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Guerin, E., Cambray, G., Sanchez-Alberola, N., Campoy, S., Erill, I., Da Re, S., Gonzalez-Zorn, B., Barbé, J., Ploy, M.-C., & Mazel, D. (2009). The SOS response controls integron recombination. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5930), 1034.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alberty, R. A. (2006). Biochemical Thermodynamics: Applications of Mathmatica. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kegl, B. (2013). Green Diesel Engines: Biodiesel Usage in Diesel Engines (M. Kegl & S. Pehan, Eds.; Vol. 12). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Nečasová, Š., & Kračmar, S. (2016). Representation Formula. In S. Kracmar (Ed.), Navier-Stokes Flow Around a Rotating Obstacle: Mathematical Analysis of its Asymptotic Behavior (pp. 39–48). Atlantis Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, June 28). Monkeys Believe in Winning Streaks Like Us. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). DOD Business Systems Modernization: Important Progress Made to Develop Business Enterprise Architecture, but Much Work Remains (GAO-03-1018). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dominguez, Y. C. (2014). Recruitment, training, and support for foster parents of children birth to 4 years: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2016, November 24). Review: ‘Mifune: The Last Samurai’ Celebrates a Fearless Actor. New York Times, C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Anderson, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Anderson, 2012; Thiele & Stoner, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thiele & Stoner, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Piras et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Guerin et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleSport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology
AbbreviationSport Exerc. Perform. Psychol.
ISSN (print)2157-3905
ISSN (online)2157-3913
ScopeApplied Psychology
Social Psychology
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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