How to format your references using the Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Woods, C. G. (2004). Neuroscience. Crossing the midline. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5676), 1455–1456.
A journal article with 2 authors
Alexandrakis, G., & Poulos, S. Ε. (2014). An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment. Scientific Reports, 4, 6078.
A journal article with 3 authors
LaDeau, S. L., Kilpatrick, A. M., & Marra, P. P. (2007). West Nile virus emergence and large-scale declines of North American bird populations. Nature, 447(7145), 710–713.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Peterson, A. T., Ortega-Huerta, M. A., Bartley, J., Sánchez-Cordero, V., Soberón, J., Buddemeier, R. H., & Stockwell, D. R. B. (2002). Future projections for Mexican faunas under global climate change scenarios. Nature, 416(6881), 626–629.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuzmeski, M. (2009). The Connectors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Balliauw, M. (2012). Pro NuGet (X. Decoster, Ed.). Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Manabe, N. (2016). Streaming Music in Japan: Corporate Cultures as Determinants of Listening Practice. In R. Nowak & A. Whelan (Eds.), Networked Music Cultures: Contemporary Approaches, Emerging Issues (pp. 67–76). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, August 5). The 41 Most Nutritious Foods On Earth. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). Attrition of Scientists at Three Regulatory Agencies (PAD-83-16). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vazquez Baeza, Y. (2017). Statistical Representations Of Microbial Systems [Doctoral dissertation]. University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sack, K. (2011, April 19). Deadly Twisters Renew Questions About Pressure on Emergency Budgets. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Woods, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Alexandrakis & Poulos, 2014; Woods, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Alexandrakis & Poulos, 2014)
  • Three authors: (LaDeau et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Peterson et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleSport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology
AbbreviationSport Exerc. Perform. Psychol.
ISSN (print)2157-3905
ISSN (online)2157-3913
ScopeApplied Psychology
Social Psychology
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles