How to format your references using the Journal of Neurotrauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neurotrauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalvit, D.A.R. (2011). Quantum physics: shaking photons out of the vacuum. Nature 479, 303–304.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heller, R.C., and Marians, K.J. (2006). Replication fork reactivation downstream of a blocked nascent leading strand. Nature 439, 557–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Robertson, J.L., Kolmakova-Partensky, L., and Miller, C. (2010). Design, function and structure of a monomeric ClC transporter. Nature 468, 844–847.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Rea, N., Esposito, P., Turolla, R., Israel, G.L., Zane, S., Stella, L., Mereghetti, S., Tiengo, A., Götz, D., Göğüş, E., and Kouveliotou, C. (2010). A low-magnetic-field soft gamma repeater. Science 330, 944–946.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Costa, P.J. (2017). Applied Mathematics for the Analysis of Biomedical Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dumas, M., Reichert, M., and Shan, M.-C. (eds). (2008). Business Process Management: 6th International Conference, BPM 2008, Milan, Italy, September 2-4, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, XIII, 399 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Shukla, P. (2012). Domains and Interfaces in Random Fields., in: Menon, G.I., and Ray, P. (eds). The Physics of Disordered Systems. Gurgaon: Hindustan Book Agency, pps. 141–158.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neurotrauma.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014). Scientists Claim They Are Close To Cloning A Mammoth. IFLScience [cited 2018 Oct 30 ] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Homeland Security: Information Technology Funding and Associated Management Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hendricks, E.D. (2010). Teaching teachers: A study of teacher educators’ perceptions of the effect of meeting mandated NCATE standards.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Blinder, A. (2016). Aimed at Zika Mosquitoes, Spray Kills Millions of Bees. New York Times , A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neurotrauma
AbbreviationJ. Neurotrauma
ISSN (print)0897-7151
ISSN (online)1557-9042
ScopeClinical Neurology

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