How to format your references using the Journal of Neurotrauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neurotrauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Bender, E. (2015). Big data in biomedicine. Nature 527, S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Badman, M.K., and Flier, J.S. (2005). The gut and energy balance: visceral allies in the obesity wars. Science 307, 1909–1914.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Petsch, S.T., Eglington, T.I., and Edwards, K.J. (2001). 14C-dead living biomass: evidence for microbial assimilation of ancient organic carbon during shale weathering. Science 292, 1127–1131.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
1.
Imanishi, Y., Sato, T., Higashi, T., Sun, W., and Okubo, S. (2004). A network of superconducting gravimeters detects submicrogal coseismic gravity changes. Science 306, 476–478.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Sagolla, D. (2009). 140 Characters. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
1.
Maytal, B.-Z. (2013). Miniature Joule-Thomson Cryocooling: Principles and Practice. New York, NY: Springer, XXXVIII, 382 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Dyshkant, N. (2013). Comparison of Point Clouds Acquired by 3D Scanner., in: Gonzalez-Diaz, R., Jimenez, M.-J., and Medrano, B. (eds). Discrete Geometry for Computer Imagery: 17th IAPR International Conference, DGCI 2013, Seville, Spain, March 20-22, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pps. 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neurotrauma.

Blog post
1.
Davis, J. (2015). Which Is Most Valuable: Gold, Cocaine Or Rhino Horn? IFLScience [cited 2018 Oct 30 ] Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/which-most-valuable-gold-cocaine-or-rhino-horn/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Information Technology: Agriculture Needs to Strengthen Management Practices for Stabilizing and Modernizing Its Farm Program Delivery Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Coulibaly, I. (2017). Influence of Gender and Age on the Performance of a PBIS program: Quantitative Analysis of Secondary Data from a Midwestern Suburban Public Middle School.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Branch, J. (2017). Why Durant Wears 35. New York Times , SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neurotrauma
AbbreviationJ. Neurotrauma
ISSN (print)0897-7151
ISSN (online)1557-9042
ScopeClinical Neurology

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