How to format your references using the Journal of Neurotrauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neurotrauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kojevnikov, A. (2007). Russian science: the little ball made science bigger. Nature 449, 542.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gorin, D.J., and Toste, F.D. (2007). Relativistic effects in homogeneous gold catalysis. Nature 446, 395–403.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, L., Spasojevic, S., and Gurnis, M. (2008). Reconstructing Farallon plate subduction beneath North America back to the Late Cretaceous. Science 322, 934–938.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Danai, L.V., Babic, A., Rosenthal, M.H., Dennstedt, E.A., Muir, A., Lien, E.C., Mayers, J.R., Tai, K., Lau, A.N., Jones-Sali, P., Prado, C.M., Petersen, G.M., Takahashi, N., Sugimoto, M., Yeh, J.J., Lopez, N., Bardeesy, N., Fernandez-Del Castillo, C., Liss, A.S., Koong, A.C., Bui, J., Yuan, C., Welch, M.W., Brais, L.K., Kulke, M.H., Dennis, C., Clish, C.B., Wolpin, B.M., and Vander Heiden, M.G. (2018). Altered exocrine function can drive adipose wasting in early pancreatic cancer. Nature 558, 600–604.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stone, C.A., and Zissu, A. (2012). The Securitization Markets Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pollard, A.J., and Finn, A. (eds). (2006). Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children III. Boston, MA: Springer US, XXVIII, 276 p. 31 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Morschett, D., Schramm-Klein, H., and Zentes, J. (2010). Role Typologies for Foreign Subsidiaries., in: Schramm-Klein, H., and Zentes, J. (eds). Strategic International Management: Text and Cases. Wiesbaden: Gabler, pps. 51–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neurotrauma.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015). Polar Bears are Moving North Where There’s Year-Round Sea Ice. IFLScience [cited 2018 Oct 30 ] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Federal Aviation Administration: Financial Management Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baciu, A.B. (2010). Biopolitics and the influenza pandemics of 1918 and 2009 in the United States: Power, immunity, and the law.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. (2017). Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times , MM20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neurotrauma
AbbreviationJ. Neurotrauma
ISSN (print)0897-7151
ISSN (online)1557-9042
ScopeClinical Neurology

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