How to format your references using the Journal of Neurotrauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neurotrauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler, A. (2011). Archaeology. Preserving history, one hill at a time. Science 334, 1623.
A journal article with 2 authors
Webster, C.R., and Heymsfield, A.J. (2003). Water isotope ratios D/H, 18O/16O, 17O/16O in and out of clouds map dehydration pathways. Science 302, 1742–1745.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lu, L.Y., Ou, N., and Lu, Q.-B. (2013). Antioxidant induces DNA damage, cell death and mutagenicity in human lung and skin normal cells. Sci. Rep. 3, 3169.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Johnson, Z.I., Zinser, E.R., Coe, A., McNulty, N.P., Woodward, E.M.S., and Chisholm, S.W. (2006). Niche partitioning among Prochlorococcus ecotypes along ocean-scale environmental gradients. Science 311, 1737–1740.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tms. (2014). TMS 2014 Supplemental Proceedings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pawlik, T.M., Maithel, S.K., and Merchant, N.B. (eds). (2015). Gastrointestinal Surgery: Management of Complex Perioperative Complications. New York, NY: Springer, XXI, 484 p. 150 illus., 86 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Ruiz, J.F., Comar, C., and Moy, Y. (2012). Source Code as the Key Artifact in Requirement-Based Development: The Case of Ada 2012., in: Brorsson, M., and Pinho, L.M. (eds). Reliable Software Technologies – Ada-Europe 2012: 17th Ada-Europe International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies, Stockholm, Sweden, June 11-15, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pps. 49–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neurotrauma.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016). 22 Ways To Be Healthier With Minimal Effort. IFLScience [cited 2018 Oct 30 ] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). The Upcoming Transition: GAO’s Efforts to Assist the 111th Congress and the Next Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Evans, B. (2013). An integrated program for homeless adults with co-occurring mental and subtance use disorders: A grant proposal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., and Belson, K. (2012). Two Sprinters Agree to Runoff For Olympic Spot. New York Times , D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neurotrauma
AbbreviationJ. Neurotrauma
ISSN (print)0897-7151
ISSN (online)1557-9042
ScopeClinical Neurology

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