How to format your references using the Journal of Neurotrauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neurotrauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ahlberg, P.E. (2004). Comment on “The early evolution of the tetrapod humerus.” Science 305, 1715; author reply 1715.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gross, R.A., and Kalra, B. (2002). Biodegradable polymers for the environment. Science 297, 803–807.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wood, R.A., Grotzinger, J.P., and Dickson, J.A.D. (2002). Proterozoic modular biomineralized metazoan from the Nama Group, Namibia. Science 296, 2383–2386.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Hustoft, H.K., Brandtzaeg, O.K., Rogeberg, M., Misaghian, D., Torsetnes, S.B., Greibrokk, T., Reubsaet, L., Wilson, S.R., and Lundanes, E. (2013). Integrated enzyme reactor and high resolving chromatography in “sub-chip” dimensions for sensitive protein mass spectrometry. Sci. Rep. 3, 3511.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson, D. (2012). Visual Guide to Financial Markets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ruitenberg, C.W., and Phillips, D.C. (eds). (2012). Education, Culture and Epistemological Diversity: Mapping a Disputed Terrain. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, X, 162 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
O’brien, K. (2015). “Mis-Education.”, in: Hartlep, N.D., and Hensley, B.O. (eds). Critical Storytelling in Uncritical Times: Stories Disclosed in a Cultural Foundations of Education Course. Rotterdam: SensePublishers, pps. 27–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neurotrauma.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016). How To Light A Match With A Rubber Band. IFLScience [cited 2018 Oct 30 ] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Federally Funded Research Centers: Agency Reviews of Employee Compensation and Center Performance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, M.P. (2009). De la página a la pantalla: Memoria de la Guerra Civil española en la narrativa contemporánea.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J. (2017). Nature’s Escape Artists Build Living Towers. New York Times , D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neurotrauma
AbbreviationJ. Neurotrauma
ISSN (print)0897-7151
ISSN (online)1557-9042
ScopeClinical Neurology

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