How to format your references using the Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell K. Short supply. Nature. 2003;423(6939):566–567.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ainslie G, Monterosso J. Behavior. A marketplace in the brain? Science. 2004;306(5695):421–423.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen SB, Stephenson R, Thomsen E. Dynamics of Mid-Palaeocene North Atlantic rifting linked with European intra-plate deformations. Nature. 2007;450(7172):1071–1074.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Koch GW, Sillett SC, Jennings GM, Davis SD. The limits to tree height. Nature. 2004;428(6985):851–854.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boeker E, Van Grondelle R. Environmental Physics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Pugliese A, Gaiti A, Boiti C, editors. Veterinary Science: Current Aspects in Biology, Animal Pathology, Clinic and Food Hygiene. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Lagorio SL, Vizán H, Geuna SE. Palaeoreconstruction of Pangea During the Early Cretaceous, and Location of Volcanism in Córdoba and Misiones Provinces with Respect to Seismic Structures in the Lower Mantle. In: Vizán H, Geuna SE, editors. Early Cretaceous Volcanism in Central and Eastern Argentina During Gondwana Break-Up. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 123–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Radiology.

Blog post
Hale T. Russian Scientists Are Trapped By Polar Bears On A Remote Siberian Island. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: Stronger Development Practices and Investment Planning Needed to Address Continuing Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 JulReport No.: GAO-05-891T. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stone B. Efficacy of Collaborative Consulting Training Module [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Virtual Target Previews Fall. New York Times. August 19, 2010;E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleRadiology
ISSN (print)0033-8419
ISSN (online)1527-1315
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles