How to format your references using the Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lewis K. Antibiotics: Recover the lost art of drug discovery. Nature. 2012;485(7399):439–440.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaib NA, Quinn T. Reassessing the source of long-period comets. Science. 2009;325(5945):1234–1236.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cumings J, Collins PG, Zettl A. Peeling and sharpening multiwall nanotubes. Nature. 2000;406(6796):586.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Volkmann N, Amann KJ, Stoilova-McPhie S, et al. Structure of Arp2/3 complex in its activated state and in actin filament branch junctions. Science. 2001;293(5539):2456–2459.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adams DJ, Dyson PJ, Tavener SJ. Chemistry in Alternative Reaction Media. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Sommaruga G, editor. Foundational Theories of Classical and Constructive Mathematics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Li Z, Gao C, Sun Y. Research on Collision Detection of Tree Swaying in Wind. In: Yu Y, Yu Z, Zhao J, editors. Computer Science for Environmental Engineering and EcoInformatics: International Workshop, CSEEE 2011, Kunming, China, July 29-31, 2011, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 18–23.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Radiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Coydogs And Lynxcats And Pizzlies, Oh My. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Better Guidance Needed for Deciding Where to Locate Facilities and Equipment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 DecReport No.: RCED-95-14. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Medina LM. Living with Global Shocks: Examining the Responses of Firms and Governments [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Bryan Twins End Run of Opening-Round Losses. New York Times. August 31, 2000;D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleRadiology
ISSN (print)0033-8419
ISSN (online)1527-1315
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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