How to format your references using the Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cordes JM. Astronomy. Radio bursts, origin unknown. Science. 2013;341(6141):40–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Morel FMM, Price NM. The biogeochemical cycles of trace metals in the oceans. Science. 2003;300(5621):944–947.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen L-Y, Redon S, Lingner J. The human CST complex is a terminator of telomerase activity. Nature. 2012;488(7412):540–544.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fujita Y, Furushima R, Ohno H, Sagawa F, Inoue T. Cell-surface receptor control that depends on the size of a synthetic equilateral-triangular RNA-protein complex. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6422.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Worth SM. The Association Guide to Going Global. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Sakurai A, Hasida K, Nitta K, editors. New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence: JSAI 2003 and JSAI 2004 Conferences and Workshops, Niigata, Japan, June 23-27, 2003 and Kanazawa, Japan, May 31 - June 4, 2004, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Aiba S-I. Vegetation Zonation and Conifer Dominance Along Latitudinal and Altitudinal Gradients in Humid Regions of the Western Pacific. In: Kudo G, editor. Structure and Function of Mountain Ecosystems in Japan: Biodiversity and Vulnerability to Climate Change. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2016. p. 89–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Radiology.

Blog post
Davis J. Chimps Found Drinking Booze In The Wild. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Alternative-Fueled Vehicles: Progress Made in Accelerating Federal Purchases, but Benefits and Costs Remain Uncertain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Jul. Report No.: RCED-94-161.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harper NR. The Relationship between Worry Symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and True Memory, False Memory, and Metamemory [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Hillary Clinton Health Panel Hears the People, Invitation Only. New York Times. March 13, 1993;17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleRadiology
ISSN (print)0033-8419
ISSN (online)1527-1315
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles