How to format your references using the General Relativity and Gravitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for General Relativity and Gravitation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paz, J.P.: Computer science. Randomness in quantum computation. Science. 302, 2076–2077 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Pasparakis, M., Vandenabeele, P.: Necroptosis and its role in inflammation. Nature. 517, 311–320 (2015)
A journal article with 3 authors
Mito, Y., Henikoff, J.G., Henikoff, S.: Histone replacement marks the boundaries of cis-regulatory domains. Science. 315, 1408–1411 (2007)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schmid, M.F., Sherman, M.B., Matsudaira, P., Chiu, W.: Structure of the acrosomal bundle. Nature. 431, 104–107 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Haupt, R.L.: Timed Arrays. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2015)
An edited book
Brambilla, M., Tokuda, T., Tolksdorf, R. eds: Web Engineering: 12th International Conference, ICWE 2012, Berlin, Germany, July 23-27, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Fu, X., Wu, Z., Chen, G.: Synchronization and Control of Hyper-Networks and Colored Networks. In: Lü, J., Yu, X., Chen, G., and Yu, W. (eds.) Complex Systems and Networks: Dynamics, Controls and Applications. pp. 107–129. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for General Relativity and Gravitation.

Blog post
Taub, B.: Brazilian Free-Tailed Bat Is Officially The World’s Fastest Flying Creature


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Railroad Regulation: Current Issues Associated With the Rate Relief Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1999)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yamada, M.: The role of the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE2 (TIR2) gene in auxin synthesis in Arabidopsis, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J.: Everyone Knows Peter, Paul and Mary. But What About Bob?, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeneral Relativity and Gravitation
AbbreviationGen. Relativ. Gravit.
ISSN (print)0001-7701
ISSN (online)1572-9532
ScopePhysics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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