How to format your references using the General Relativity and Gravitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for General Relativity and Gravitation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gonzalez, C.: Cell division: A last-minute decision. Nature. 528, 196–197 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Phillips, P., Dalidovich, D.: The elusive Bose metal. Science. 302, 243–247 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Weisz, C., Glowatzki, E., Fuchs, P.: The postsynaptic function of type II cochlear afferents. Nature. 461, 1126–1129 (2009)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Blackburn, T.M., Cassey, P., Duncan, R.P., Evans, K.L., Gaston, K.J.: Avian extinction and mammalian introductions on oceanic islands. Science. 305, 1955–1958 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, S., Liu, Y.: Modeling and Simulation for Microelectronic Packaging Assembly. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, Singapore (2011)
An edited book
Iliadis, L., Maglogiannis, I., Papadopoulos, H. eds: Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations: 10th IFIP WG 12.5 International Conference, AIAI 2014, Rhodes, Greece, September 19-21, 2014. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Melhus, I., Arnal, F., Gayraud, T., Jacquemin, B.: SATSIX Mobility Architecture and Its Performance Evaluation. In: Fan, L., Cruickshank, H., and Sun, Z. (eds.) IP Networking over Next-Generation Satellite Systems: International Workshop, Budapest, July 2007. pp. 59–75. Springer, New York, NY (2008)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for General Relativity and Gravitation.

Blog post
Hale, T.: These Five Optical Illusions Will Make You Doubt Your Own Eyes


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Followup on Actions To Improve Coordination and Utilization of Human Resources Research and Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1981)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cole, K.W.: Principal investigator and department administrator perceptions of services provided by Offices of Research Administration at research universities, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B., McKINLEY, J.C., Jr: Connecticut Death Penalty Law Is Unconstitutional, Top State Court Says, (2015)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeneral Relativity and Gravitation
AbbreviationGen. Relativ. Gravit.
ISSN (print)0001-7701
ISSN (online)1572-9532
ScopePhysics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Other styles