How to format your references using the General Relativity and Gravitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for General Relativity and Gravitation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rosenlof, K.H.: Atmospheric science. How water enters the stratosphere. Science. 302, 1691–1692 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Morandi, B., Carreira, E.M.: Iron-catalyzed cyclopropanation in 6 M KOH with in situ generation of diazomethane. Science. 335, 1471–1474 (2012)
A journal article with 3 authors
Mulch, A., Graham, S.A., Chamberlain, C.P.: Hydrogen isotopes in Eocene river gravels and paleoelevation of the Sierra Nevada. Science. 313, 87–89 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Baugh, J., Moussa, O., Ryan, C.A., Nayak, A., Laflamme, R.: Experimental implementation of heat-bath algorithmic cooling using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Nature. 438, 470–473 (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tadros, T.F.: Colloids in Paints. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2010)
An edited book
Singh, K.: Measures of Positive Psychology: Development and Validation. Springer India, New Delhi (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Heylings, J.R.: Diffusion Cell Design. In: Shah, V.P., Maibach, H.I., and Jenner, J. (eds.) Topical Drug Bioavailability, Bioequivalence, and Penetration. pp. 69–80. Springer, New York, NY (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for General Relativity and Gravitation.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: The strangest and biggest things in space,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Aviation Security: Challenges Delay Implementation of Computer-Assisted Passenger Prescreening System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2004)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pham, H.D.: Determination of Default Probability in Auto Finance through Predictive Analytics, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M.: Step Down to Step Up, (2010)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeneral Relativity and Gravitation
AbbreviationGen. Relativ. Gravit.
ISSN (print)0001-7701
ISSN (online)1572-9532
ScopePhysics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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