How to format your references using the General Relativity and Gravitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for General Relativity and Gravitation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gormley, W.T., Jr: From science to policy in early childhood education. Science. 333, 978–981 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Hanski, I., Ovaskainen, O.: The metapopulation capacity of a fragmented landscape. Nature. 404, 755–758 (2000)
A journal article with 3 authors
Germain, R.N., Robey, E.A., Cahalan, M.D.: A decade of imaging cellular motility and interaction dynamics in the immune system. Science. 336, 1676–1681 (2012)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yao, Q., Lu, Z.-H., Zhang, Z., Chen, X., Lan, Y.: One-pot synthesis of core-shell Cu@SiO2 nanospheres and their catalysis for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane and hydrazine borane. Sci. Rep. 4, 7597 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexandridis, A.K., Zapranis, A.D.: Wavelet Neural Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2014)
An edited book
Dickinson, S.J., Pizlo, Z. eds: Shape Perception in Human and Computer Vision: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Springer, London (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Campi, A., Ceri, S., Maesani, A., Ronchi, S.: Designing Service Marts for Engineering Search Computing Applications. In: Benatallah, B., Casati, F., Kappel, G., and Rossi, G. (eds.) Web Engineering: 10th International Conference, ICWE 2010, Vienna Austria, July 5-9, 2010. Proceedings. pp. 50–65. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2010)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for General Relativity and Gravitation.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: Stars Seen Forming Inside A Supermassive Black Hole’s Winds,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: New Denver Airport: Safety, Construction, Capacity, and Financing Considerations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1991)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carver, J.R.: CMO: Chief Marketing Officer or chief “marginalized” officer, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M.: Cecilia Bartoli May Return to New York, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeneral Relativity and Gravitation
AbbreviationGen. Relativ. Gravit.
ISSN (print)0001-7701
ISSN (online)1572-9532
ScopePhysics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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