How to format your references using the General Relativity and Gravitation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for General Relativity and Gravitation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage, N.: Bioinformatics: Big data versus the big C. Nature. 509, S66-7 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Claustre, H., Maritorena, S.: Ocean science. The many shades of ocean blue. Science. 302, 1514–1515 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Stajic, J., Coontz, R., Osborne, I.: Superconductivity. Happy 100th, superconductivity! Introduction. Science. 332, 189 (2011)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Blilou, I., Xu, J., Wildwater, M., Willemsen, V., Paponov, I., Friml, J., Heidstra, R., Aida, M., Palme, K., Scheres, B.: The PIN auxin efflux facilitator network controls growth and patterning in Arabidopsis roots. Nature. 433, 39–44 (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bruen, G.O.: WHOIS Running the Internet. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2015)
An edited book
Banerjee, A.: SystemC and SystemC-AMS in Practice: SystemC 2.3, 2.2 and SystemC-AMS 1.0. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Kitaev, S., Lozin, V.: Various Results on Word-Representable Graphs. In: Lozin, V. (ed.) Words and Graphs. pp. 81–130. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for General Relativity and Gravitation.

Blog post
Hale, T.: These Are The First Color Images Of The Schiaparelli Crash Site On Mars,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Additional Costs to Government: Reflagging Kuwaiti Ships and Protecting Them in the Persian Gulf. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1987)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhao, J.: Contextual Differential Item Functioning: Examining the Validity of Teaching Self-Efficacy Instruments Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D.: An Unusual Place for a President’s Family on a Foreign Trip: Center Stage, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeneral Relativity and Gravitation
AbbreviationGen. Relativ. Gravit.
ISSN (print)0001-7701
ISSN (online)1572-9532
ScopePhysics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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