How to format your references using the Sport, Education and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sport, Education and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dagotto, E. (2007). PHYSICS. When oxides meet face to face. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5853), 1076–1077.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hardison, R. C., & Blobel, G. A. (2013). Genetics. GWAS to therapy by genome edits? Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6155), 206–207.
A journal article with 3 authors
Savrasov, S. Y., Kotliar, G., & Abrahams, E. (2001). Correlated electrons in delta-plutonium within a dynamical mean-field picture. Nature, 410(6830), 793–795.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhao, J., Sun, B. K., Erwin, J. A., Song, J.-J., & Lee, J. T. (2008). Polycomb proteins targeted by a short repeat RNA to the mouse X chromosome. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5902), 750–756.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yang, H., & Lee, E. K. (2016). Healthcare Analytics: From Data to Knowledge to Healthcare Improvement. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tsang, S., & Men, H. (Eds.). (2016). China in the Xi Jinping Era. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hahn, B. (2015). Nicotinic Receptors and Attention. In D. J. K. Balfour & M. R. Munafò (Eds.), The Neurobiology and Genetics of Nicotine and Tobacco (pp. 103–135). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sport, Education and Society.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 7). A Russian Spacecraft Is Heading For A Fiery Demise. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Emergency Preparedness: Current Emergency Alert System Has Limitations, and Development of a New Integrated System Will Be Challenging (No. GAO-07-411). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lowry, L. A. (2017). Creative Aging in Senior Centers: A Grounded Theory Study (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S. M. (2015, November 22). Turkey and Trimmings, Without Dishes to Do. New York Times, p. LI11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dagotto, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Dagotto, 2007; Hardison & Blobel, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hardison & Blobel, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Savrasov, Kotliar, & Abrahams, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhao, Sun, Erwin, Song, & Lee, 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleSport, Education and Society
AbbreviationSport Educ. Soc.
ISSN (print)1357-3322
ISSN (online)1470-1243
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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