How to format your references using the Sport, Education and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sport, Education and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoag, H. (2014). Drug development: a chance of survival. Nature, 515(7527), S118-20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trauger, J. T., & Traub, W. A. (2007). A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet. Nature, 446(7137), 771–773.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, A. E., Ginty, D. D., & Fan, C.-M. (2005). Protein kinase A signalling via CREB controls myogenesis induced by Wnt proteins. Nature, 433(7023), 317–322.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Marchitto, T. M., Lehman, S. J., Ortiz, J. D., Flückiger, J., & van Geen, A. (2007). Marine radiocarbon evidence for the mechanism of deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5830), 1456–1459.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
James, L. (2014). Sustainability Footprints in SMEs. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hevia, A., & Neven, G. (Eds.). (2012). Progress in Cryptology – LATINCRYPT 2012: 2nd International Conference on Cryptology and Information Security in Latin America, Santiago, Chile, October 7-10, 2012. Proceedings (Vol. 7533). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, J., & Wang, X. (2011). Dynamic Sliding Mode Control. In X. Wang (Ed.), Advanced Sliding Mode Control for Mechanical Systems: Design, Analysis and MATLAB Simulation (pp. 111–116). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sport, Education and Society.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, December 14). Humanity Is Not Ready To Face Off Against Asteroids Yet. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Airline Competition: DOT’s Implementation of Airline Regulatory Authority (RCED-89-93). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Paoletti, M. S. (2010). Experimental characterization of turbulent superfluid helium [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Adkins, M. (2015, January 11). Where Elmo’s People Shop. New York Times, MB3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoag, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Hoag, 2014; Trauger & Traub, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trauger & Traub, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Chen et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Marchitto et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleSport, Education and Society
AbbreviationSport Educ. Soc.
ISSN (print)1357-3322
ISSN (online)1470-1243
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles