How to format your references using the Sport, Education and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sport, Education and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baulcombe, D. (2004). RNA silencing in plants. Nature, 431(7006), 356–363.
A journal article with 2 authors
Curry, R., & Mauritzen, C. (2005). Dilution of the northern North Atlantic Ocean in recent decades. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5729), 1772–1774.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, J. L. C., Everitt, B. J., & Thomas, K. L. (2004). Independent cellular processes for hippocampal memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5672), 839–843.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Als, T. D., Vila, R., Kandul, N. P., Nash, D. R., Yen, S.-H., Hsu, Y.-F., Mignault, A. A., Boomsma, J. J., & Pierce, N. E. (2004). The evolution of alternative parasitic life histories in large blue butterflies. Nature, 432(7015), 386–390.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Engle, C. R., Quagrainie, K. K., & Dey, M. M. (2016). Seafood and Aquaculture Marketing Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bolón-Canedo, V. (2015). Feature Selection for High-Dimensional Data (N. Sánchez-Maroño & A. Alonso-Betanzos, Eds.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Grigorian, A., Frank, P. N., & Benharash, P. (2015). Chest Pain, Diaphoresis, and Nausea. In C. de Virgilio, P. N. Frank, & A. Grigorian (Eds.), Surgery: A Case Based Clinical Review (pp. 47–56). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sport, Education and Society.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, December 8). Amateur Astronomer Reveals Star Spots On Pulsar’s Companion. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Traffic Safety: Grants Generally Address Key Safety Issues, Despite State Eligibility and Management Difficulties (GAO-08-398). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ma, B. (2012). Improving the performance of hyperspectral target detection [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2016, December 19). My Year in Reading. New York Times, BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baulcombe, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Baulcombe, 2004; Curry & Mauritzen, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Curry & Mauritzen, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Lee et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Als et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleSport, Education and Society
AbbreviationSport Educ. Soc.
ISSN (print)1357-3322
ISSN (online)1470-1243
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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