How to format your references using the Sport, Education and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sport, Education and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Desiraju, G. R. (2012). Policy: Bold strategies for Indian science. Nature, 484(7393), 159–160.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pedersen, T. R., & Gerken, E. A. (2005). Creation of visible artificial optical emissions in the aurora by high-power radio waves. Nature, 433(7025), 498–500.
A journal article with 3 authors
Villar, G., Graham, A. D., & Bayley, H. (2013). A tissue-like printed material. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6128), 48–52.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Koelle, K., Cobey, S., Grenfell, B., & Pascual, M. (2006). Epochal evolution shapes the phylodynamics of interpandemic influenza A (H3N2) in humans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5807), 1898–1903.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smed, J., & Hakonen, H. (2017). Algorithms and Networking for Computer Games. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
de Noya, B. (2015). Trypanosoma cruzi as a Foodborne Pathogen (O. González & L. J. Robertson, Eds.; 1st ed. 2015). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Noor, T. H., Sheng, Q. Z., & Bouguettaya, A. (2014). Robust and Adaptive Credibility Model. In Q. Z. Sheng & A. Bouguettaya (Eds.), Trust Management in Cloud Services (pp. 45–57). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sport, Education and Society.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 13). Why Single Blood Markers For Disease Will Become A Thing Of The Past. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Department of Energy: Advanced Technology Vehicle Loan Program Implementation Is Under Way, but Enhanced Technical Oversight and Performance Measures Are Needed (GAO-11-145). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bell, J. (2015). A phenomenological study of African American GS-13 to GS-15 managers within the federal government [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2012, November 27). Fierce Debt Puts Pensions at Risk In Puerto Rico. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Desiraju, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Desiraju, 2012; Pedersen & Gerken, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pedersen & Gerken, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Villar et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Koelle et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSport, Education and Society
AbbreviationSport Educ. Soc.
ISSN (print)1357-3322
ISSN (online)1470-1243
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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