How to format your references using the Injury Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Injury Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Election returns. Nature 2004;432:417.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hager R, Johnstone RA. The genetic basis of family conflict resolution in mice. Nature 2003;421:533–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pilet S, Baker MB, Stolper EM. Metasomatized lithosphere and the origin of alkaline lavas. Science 2008;320:916–9.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Korou L-M, Agrogiannis G, Koros C, et al. Impact of N-acetylcysteine and sesame oil on lipid metabolism and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis homeostasis in middle-aged hypercholesterolemic mice. Sci Rep 2014;4:6806.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ash MK. The Mary Kay Way. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2008.
An edited book
Lambris JD, Holers VM, Ricklin D, editors. Complement Therapeutics. Boston, MA: : Springer US 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
van Grembergen W, de Haes S. COBIT as a Framework for Enterprise Governance of IT. In: Van Grembergen W, ed. Enterprise Governance of Information Technology: Achieving Strategic Alignment and Value. Boston, MA: : Springer US 2009. 137–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Injury Prevention.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Science Of Doping And How Cheating Athletes Pass Drug Tests. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Gender Equity: Men’s and Women’s Participation in Higher Education. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robertson M. Respite efficacy for parents of adults with intellectual disabilities: An ethnographic perspective. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch J. A Gladiator’s Guidance. New York Times. 2016;:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInjury Prevention
AbbreviationInj. Prev.
ISSN (print)1353-8047
ISSN (online)1475-5785
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles