How to format your references using the Injury Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Injury Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bhattacharjee Y. Sensitive technology. Schools fear impact of proposed license changes. Science 2005;308:938–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lybarger SR, Sandkvist M. Microbiology. A hitchhiker’s guide to type IV secretion. Science 2004;304:1122–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Girart JM, Rao R, Marrone DP. Magnetic fields in the formation of sun-like stars. Science 2006;313:812–4.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Johnston RJ, Poholek AC, DiToro D, et al. Bcl6 and Blimp-1 are reciprocal and antagonistic regulators of T follicular helper cell differentiation. Science 2009;325:1006–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Casadella V, Liu Z, Uzunidis D. Innovation Capabilities and Economic Development in Open Economies. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2015.
An edited book
Angelis E, Chaplain MAJ, Bellomo N, editors. Selected Topics in Cancer Modeling: Genesis, Evolution, Immune Competition, and Therapy. Boston, MA: : Birkhäuser 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuswanto K, Hoen HW, Holzhacker RL. Decentralization, Foreign Direct Investment and Development in Indonesia. In: Holzhacker RL, Wittek R, Woltjer J, eds. Decentralization and Governance in Indonesia. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2016. 105–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Injury Prevention.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Minecraft Could Help Teach Chemistry’s Building Blocks Of Life. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Education of Homeless Students: Improved Program Oversight Needed. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Borogovac A. Novel method for superior detection of functional changes in CBF using arterial spin labeling fMRI. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess B, Silver-Greenberg J, LaFRANIERE S. Kushner’s Legal Team In Election Investigation May Be Reconfigured. New York Times. 2017;:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInjury Prevention
AbbreviationInj. Prev.
ISSN (print)1353-8047
ISSN (online)1475-5785
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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