How to format your references using the BMC Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Oerlemans J. Extracting a climate signal from 169 glacier records. Science. 2005;308:675–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wu L, Hickson ID. The Bloom’s syndrome helicase suppresses crossing over during homologous recombination. Nature. 2003;426:870–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mariani FV, Ahn CP, Martin GR. Genetic evidence that FGFs have an instructive role in limb proximal-distal patterning. Nature. 2008;453:401–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Jiggins CD, Naisbit RE, Coe RL, Mallet J. Reproductive isolation caused by colour pattern mimicry. Nature. 2001;411:302–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Marti P. Baustatik. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH; 2014.
An edited book
1. Duval A, Rigozzi A, editors. Yearbook of International Sports Arbitration 2015. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Halaas Ø, Husebye H, Espevik1 T. The Journey of Toll-like Receptors in the Cell. In: Lambris JD, editor. Current Topics in Innate Immunity. New York, NY: Springer; 2007. p. 35–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Immunology.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Galaxy Collisions Might Be Shrouding Black Holes In Dust. IFLScience. 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/space/galaxy-collisions-might-be-shrouding-black-holes-in-dust/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. ADP Acquisitions: SSA Should Limit ADP Procurements Until Further Testing Is Performed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Tucker CM. End-stage renal disease patients and dialysis: Can consistent transportation influence quality of life and treatment compliance? A grant writing project. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sisario B. Logic Streams Way To Top of Album Chart. New York Times. 2017;:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Immunology
AbbreviationBMC Immunol.
ISSN (online)1471-2172
ScopeImmunology

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