How to format your references using the Spirituality in Clinical Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spirituality in Clinical Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Westerterp, K. R. (2001). Pattern and intensity of physical activity. Nature, 410(6828), 539.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sine, S. M., & Engel, A. G. (2006). Recent advances in Cys-loop receptor structure and function. Nature, 440(7083), 448–455.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thornton, J. W., Need, E., & Crews, D. (2003). Resurrecting the ancestral steroid receptor: ancient origin of estrogen signaling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5640), 1714–1717.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Arase, H., Mocarski, E. S., Campbell, A. E., Hill, A. B., & Lanier, L. L. (2002). Direct recognition of cytomegalovirus by activating and inhibitory NK cell receptors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5571), 1323–1326.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Andersson, C., Freeman, D., James, I., Johnston, A., & Ljung, S. (2006). Mobile Media and Applications - From Concept to Cash. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rovira Más, F. (2011). Mechatronics and Intelligent Systems for Off-road Vehicles. (Q. Zhang & A. C. Hansen, Eds.). London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Schäfer, M. (2012). Risk Analysis and Software Integrity Protection for 4G Network Elements in ASMONIA. In F. Ortmeier & P. Daniel (Eds.), Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 31st International Conference, SAFECOMP 2012, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-28, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 49–61). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spirituality in Clinical Practice.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016, October 3). Even Remote Deep-Sea Animals Are Ingesting Microplastics, Study Finds. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1974). Inquiry About the Office of Telecommunications Policy (No. B-151192). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parsons, A. T. (2010). Metal-catalyzed annulations of strained cycloalkanes (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2013, July 3). Tarrytown, N.Y., Charms Residents and Retailers. New York Times, p. B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Westerterp, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Sine & Engel, 2006; Westerterp, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sine & Engel, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Thornton, Need, & Crews, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Arase, Mocarski, Campbell, Hill, & Lanier, 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpirituality in Clinical Practice
AbbreviationSpiritual. Clin. Pract. (Wash., DC)
ISSN (print)2326-4500
ISSN (online)2326-4519

Other styles