How to format your references using the Spirituality in Clinical Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spirituality in Clinical Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cohen, P. (2000). How to make diplomats scientifically literate. Nature, 405(6783), 116.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weeds, A., & Yeoh, S. (2001). Structure. Action at the Y-branch. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5547), 1660–1661.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coleman, S. W., Patricelli, G. L., & Borgia, G. (2004). Variable female preferences drive complex male displays. Nature, 428(6984), 742–745.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Thirumurugan, K., Sakamoto, T., Hammer, J. A., 3rd, Sellers, J. R., & Knight, P. J. (2006). The cargo-binding domain regulates structure and activity of myosin 5. Nature, 442(7099), 212–215.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (1995). Guidelines for Process Safety Documentation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mutsvairo, B. (Ed.). (2016). Digital Activism in the Social Media Era: Critical Reflections on Emerging Trends in Sub-Saharan Africa. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kiang, T. K. L., Wilby, K. J., & Ensom, M. H. H. (2016). Clinical Drug-Drug Interaction Data: Effects of Co-administered Drugs on Pharmacokinetics of Antiretroviral Agents. In T. K. L. Kiang, K. J. Wilby, & M. H. H. Ensom (Eds.), Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Drug Interactions Associated with Antiretroviral Drugs (pp. 43–78). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spirituality in Clinical Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 22). Physicists Create World’s Coolest Molecules. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Contract Management: Few Competing Proposals for Large DOD Information Technology Orders (NSIAD-00-56). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bujarbarua, V. (2015). Production Optimization Using an In-Situ Steam Generator in a Rejuvenated Heavy Oil Field [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, October 22). Mets’ Pick for Manager Is Heavy on Pitching and Youth. New York Times, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cohen, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Cohen, 2000; Weeds & Yeoh, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weeds & Yeoh, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Coleman et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Thirumurugan et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpirituality in Clinical Practice
AbbreviationSpiritual. Clin. Pract. (Wash., DC)
ISSN (print)2326-4500
ISSN (online)2326-4519

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