How to format your references using the Spirituality in Clinical Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spirituality in Clinical Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heeney, J. L. (2015). Ebola: Hidden reservoirs. Nature, 527(7579), 453–455.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pollard, P. J., & Ratcliffe, P. J. (2009). Cancer. Puzzling patterns of predisposition. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5924), 192–194.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stephens, D. W., McLinn, C. M., & Stevens, J. R. (2002). Discounting and reciprocity in an Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5601), 2216–2218.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sturevik-Storm, A., Aldahan, A., Possnert, G., Berggren, A.-M., Muscheler, R., Dahl-Jensen, D., Vinther, B. M., & Usoskin, I. (2014). 10Be climate fingerprints during the Eemian in the NEEM ice core, Greenland. Scientific Reports, 4, 6408.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Clarke, A., Thompson, A., Jenkinson, E., Rumsey, N., & Newell, R. (2013). CBT for Appearance Anxiety. John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Hornby, G. S., Sekanina, L., & Haddow, P. C. (Eds.). (2008). Evolvable Systems: From Biology to Hardware: 8th International Conference, ICES 2008, Prague, Czech Republic, September 21-24, 2008. Proceedings (Vol. 5216). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
McClean, P. E., Lavin, M., Gepts, P., & Jackson, S. A. (2008). Phaseolus vulgaris: A Diploid Model for Soybean. In G. Stacey (Ed.), Genetics and Genomics of Soybean (pp. 55–76). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spirituality in Clinical Practice.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015, September 30). Plastic-Eating Mealworms Could Help Reduce Landfill Waste. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Information Technology: Customs Automated Commercial Environment Program Progressing, but Need for Management Improvements Continues (GAO-05-267). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bozorgchami, B. (2017). Time and Bandwidth Efficiency in Transmission of Telemedicine and In-Hospital Patient Data [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2005, January 25). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Jewish Groups Under Attack. New York Times, A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heeney, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Heeney, 2015; Pollard & Ratcliffe, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pollard & Ratcliffe, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Stephens et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sturevik-Storm et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpirituality in Clinical Practice
AbbreviationSpiritual. Clin. Pract. (Wash., DC)
ISSN (print)2326-4500
ISSN (online)2326-4519

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