How to format your references using the Spirituality in Clinical Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spirituality in Clinical Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pan, H. (2014). Metal dichalcogenides monolayers: novel catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen production. Scientific Reports, 4, 5348.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hirn, A., & Laigle, M. (2004). Geophysics. Silent heralds of megathrust earthquakes? Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5692), 1917–1918.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gonzalez, S., Kitchener, A. C., & Lister, A. M. (2000). Survival of the Irish elk into the Holocene. Nature, 405(6788), 753–754.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wu, Y., Zhang, X., Pan, H., Deng, W., Zhang, X., Zhang, X., & Jie, J. (2013). In-situ device integration of large-area patterned organic nanowire arrays for high-performance optical sensors. Scientific Reports, 3, 3248.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mattu, A., Grossman, S. A., & Rosen, P. L. (2016). Geriatric Emergencies. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Wu, S., Fan, Y., & Tian, Y. (Eds.). (2013). Atlas of Single-Incision Laparoscopic Operations in General Surgery. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Roy Chowdhury, A., Bhattacharya, U., & Parui, S. K. (2012). Text Detection of Two Major Indian Scripts in Natural Scene Images. In M. Iwamura & F. Shafait (Eds.), Camera-Based Document Analysis and Recognition: 4th International Workshop, CBDAR 2011, Beijing, China, September 22, 2011, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 42–57). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spirituality in Clinical Practice.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, August 30). One In Five Genetics Studies Contain Mistakes Due To Microsoft Excel. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). Impact of Funding on Materials R&D Programs in the Departments of Energy and Commerce, and NASA Since FY 1980 (EMD-82-73). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Poldervaart, P. G. (2010). A qualitative study of nursing didactic programs: Novice nurses’ perception of competence, confidence, and retention [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, August 15). Sharapova Given Wild Card Into U.S. Open, Her First Major Since 2016. New York Times, B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pan, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Hirn & Laigle, 2004; Pan, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hirn & Laigle, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Gonzalez et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpirituality in Clinical Practice
AbbreviationSpiritual. Clin. Pract. (Wash., DC)
ISSN (print)2326-4500
ISSN (online)2326-4519

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