How to format your references using the Spine Deformity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spine Deformity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McGilvray A. Research assessment: the limits of excellence. Nature. 2014 Jul 24;511(7510):S64-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reysenbach AL, Shock E. Merging genomes with geochemistry in hydrothermal ecosystems. Science. 2002 May 10;296(5570):1077–82.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuba H, Ishii TM, Ohmori H. Axonal site of spike initiation enhances auditory coincidence detection. Nature. 2006 Dec 21;444(7122):1069–72.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Carrano AC, Liu Z, Dillin A, Hunter T. A conserved ubiquitination pathway determines longevity in response to diet restriction. Nature. 2009 Jul 16;460(7253):396–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bajorski P. Statistics for Imaging, Optics, and Photonics: Bajorski/Statistics for Imaging. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011. (Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics).
An edited book
Moehrle MG, Isenmann R, Phaal R, editors. Technology Roadmapping for Strategy and Innovation: Charting the Route to Success. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Britto MR, Sarapa N. Clinical QTc Assessment in Oncology. In: Bonate PL, Howard DR, editors. Pharmacokinetics in Drug Development: Problems and Challenges in Oncology, Volume 4. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 77–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spine Deformity.

Blog post
Davis J. The Month In Which You’re Born Could Influence Which Diseases You Develop [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mainframe Procurements: Statistics Showing How and What the Government is Acquiring. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Dec. Report No.: IMTEC-91-13.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Darvish H. Smart Power Grid Synchronization with Nonlinear Estimation [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. City Opera Unveils 2017-18 Season. New York Times. 2017 May 24;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McGilvray 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Reysenbach and Shock 2002; McGilvray 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reysenbach and Shock 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Carrano et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpine Deformity
AbbreviationSpine Deform.
ISSN (print)2212-134X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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