How to format your references using the Spine Deformity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spine Deformity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Woolston C. Breast cancer: 4 big questions. Nature. 2015 Nov 19;527(7578):S120.
A journal article with 2 authors
Green CS, Bavelier D. Action video game modifies visual selective attention. Nature. 2003 May 29;423(6939):534–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kahn SE, Hull RL, Utzschneider KM. Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature. 2006 Dec 14;444(7121):840–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Agarwal S, Loh YH, McLoughlin EM, Huang J, Park IH, Miller JD, et al. Telomere elongation in induced pluripotent stem cells from dyskeratosis congenita patients. Nature. 2010 Mar 11;464(7286):292–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Labuszewski JW, Nyhoff JE, Co R, Peterson PE. The CME Group Risk Management Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Bakris GL, editor. The Kidney in Heart Failure. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Mohamad Said MNH, Yahaya N, Abdullah Z, Atan NA, Zaid NM. The Nature of Student Group Online Interactions in Learning ICT Education. In: Luaran JE, Sardi J, Aziz A, Alias NA, editors. Envisioning the Future of Online Learning: Selected Papers from the International Conference on e-Learning 2015. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 31–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spine Deformity.

Blog post
Andrew E. Publish Or Perish Culture Encourages Scientists To Cut Corners [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Income Security Issue Area: Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Oct. Report No.: AA-95-14(4).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGowan HC. The military experience: Perceptions from senior military officers’ wives [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Chocolate And a Touch Of Chic. New York Times. 2006 Oct 14;NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Woolston 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Green and Bavelier 2003; Woolston 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Green and Bavelier 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Agarwal et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpine Deformity
AbbreviationSpine Deform.
ISSN (print)2212-134X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles