How to format your references using the Spine Deformity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spine Deformity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Littman ML. Reinforcement learning improves behaviour from evaluative feedback. Nature. 2015 May 28;521(7553):445–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cowman AF, Tonkin CJ. Microbiology. A tail of division. Science. 2011 Jan 28;331(6016):409–10.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thitamadee S, Tuchihara K, Hashimoto T. Microtubule basis for left-handed helical growth in Arabidopsis. Nature. 2002 May 9;417(6885):193–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Abi-Rached L, Jobin MJ, Kulkarni S, McWhinnie A, Dalva K, Gragert L, et al. The shaping of modern human immune systems by multiregional admixture with archaic humans. Science. 2011 Oct 7;334(6052):89–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Daïan J-F. Equilibrium and Transfer in Porous Media 3. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Grandfield JF, Eskin DG, editors. Essential Readings in Light Metals: Volume 3 Cast Shop for Aluminum Production. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Bakonyi M, Lopushanskaya EV. Moment Problems for Real Measures on the Unit Circle. In: Behrndt J, Förster K-H, Trunk C, editors. Recent Advances in Operator Theory in Hilbert and Krein Spaces. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2010. p. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spine Deformity.

Blog post
Luntz S. A Girl Left Her Contacts In For 6 Months And Amoebas Ate Her Eyeballs [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Concerns About Developing and Producing Magnets for the Superconducting Super Collider. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 May. Report No.: T-RCED-91-51.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sinha R. An Integrated Development Environment for the Clara Constraint-Programming Language [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mcbride M, Blackmon T, Reid F, Skinner BW. Don’t Wait For a Perfect Protest. New York Times. 2017 Sep 2;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Littman 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cowman and Tonkin 2011; Littman 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cowman and Tonkin 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Abi-Rached et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpine Deformity
AbbreviationSpine Deform.
ISSN (print)2212-134X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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