How to format your references using the Spine Deformity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spine Deformity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Firestein GS. Evolving concepts of rheumatoid arthritis. Nature. 2003 May 15;423(6937):356–61.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sincich LC, Horton JC. Divided by cytochrome oxidase: a map of the projections from V1 to V2 in macaques. Science. 2002 Mar 1;295(5560):1734–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krieger MJ, Billeter JB, Keller L. Ant-like task allocation and recruitment in cooperative robots. Nature. 2000 Aug 31;406(6799):992–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chelton DB, Schlax MG, Freilich MH, Milliff RF. Satellite measurements reveal persistent small-scale features in ocean winds. Science. 2004 Feb 13;303(5660):978–83.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Banerjee S, Lawrence V. Managing Dementia in a Multicultural Society. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Riolo R, Worzel WP, Kotanchek M, Kordon A, editors. Genetic Programming Theory and Practice XIII. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. (Genetic and Evolutionary Computation).
A chapter in an edited book
Dzemyda G, Kurasova O, Žilinskas J. Applications of Visualization. In: Kurasova O, Žilinskas J, editors. Multidimensional Data Visualization: Methods and Applications. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 179–226. (Springer Optimization and Its Applications).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spine Deformity.

Blog post
Hale T. This Is What It Looks Like Inside A Beatboxer’s Throat. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: Review of the South Boston Piers Transitway Finance Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Nov. Report No.: GAO-01-174R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wylie RW. Response to Intervention: A Study of Intervention Programs in Rural Secondary Schools [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times. 2017 Mar 3;MM20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Firestein 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Sincich and Horton 2002; Firestein 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sincich and Horton 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Chelton et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpine Deformity
AbbreviationSpine Deform.
ISSN (print)2212-134X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles