How to format your references using the Spine Deformity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spine Deformity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nossal GJV. The double helix and immunology. Nature. 2003 Jan 23;421(6921):440–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ho L, Crabtree GR. Chromatin remodelling during development. Nature. 2010 Jan 28;463(7280):474–84.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ziegler AD, Fox JM, Xu J. Agriculture. The rubber juggernaut. Science. 2009 May 22;324(5930):1024–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tang K, Zhang Y, Yu M, Shi X, Coenye T, Bossier P, et al. Evaluation of a new high-throughput method for identifying quorum quenching bacteria. Sci Rep. 2013 Oct 14;3:2935.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anson EM. Alexander’s Heirs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Dietz V, Nef T, Rymer WZ, editors. Neurorehabilitation Technology. London: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Chhieng DC, Stelow EB. Ancillary Testing for the Diagnosis of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. In: Stelow EB, editor. Pancreatic Cytopathology. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007. p. 67–74. (Rosenthal DL, Ali SZ, Clark DP, Erozan YS, editors. Essentials in Cytopathology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spine Deformity.

Blog post
Andrew E. Are Plastics Making Men Infertile? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Contractors’ Independent Research and Development Program--Issues and Alternatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Jun. Report No.: PSAD-75-82.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kunihiro AG. The relationship between dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intake and colorectal cancer [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB. Trump-Size Idea for a New President: Build Stuff. New York Times. 2016 Nov 17;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nossal 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Nossal 2003; Ho and Crabtree 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ho and Crabtree 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Tang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpine Deformity
AbbreviationSpine Deform.
ISSN (print)2212-134X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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