How to format your references using the Spine Deformity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spine Deformity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harris DN. Education. Value-added measures and the future of educational accountability. Science. 2011 Aug 12;333(6044):826–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chaine AS, Lyon BE. Adaptive plasticity in female mate choice dampens sexual selection on male ornaments in the lark bunting. Science. 2008 Jan 25;319(5862):459–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
Muraoka T, Kinbara K, Aida T. Mechanical twisting of a guest by a photoresponsive host. Nature. 2006 Mar 23;440(7083):512–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schwartz T, Bartal G, Fishman S, Segev M. Transport and Anderson localization in disordered two-dimensional photonic lattices. Nature. 2007 Mar 1;446(7131):52–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ushakov I. Probabilistic Reliability Models. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Mann S, editor. Sectors Matter!: Exploring Mesoeconomics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Alriksson-Schmidt AI, Thibadeau JK. Children and Adolescents with Mobility Limitations. In: Hollar D, editor. Handbook of Children with Special Health Care Needs. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 87–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spine Deformity.

Blog post
Davis J. Poorer Nations Are More Committed To Wildlife Conservation Than Richer Ones [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information on Prime Sponsor CETA Expenditures Related to Membership Organizations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 Oct. Report No.: HRD-82-5.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martin RL. Development of a Nutrition Program with Emphasis on Use of Social Media for Middle School Students [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. A Quiet Place To Start a Revolution. New York Times. 2006 Aug 18;F1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harris 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Chaine and Lyon 2008; Harris 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chaine and Lyon 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Schwartz et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpine Deformity
AbbreviationSpine Deform.
ISSN (print)2212-134X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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