How to format your references using the European Geriatric Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Geriatric Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Finkbeiner A. JASON past, present, and future: the world’s most independent defence science advisers. Nature 2011;477:397–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Qaim M, Zilberman D. Yield effects of genetically modified crops in developing countries. Science 2003;299:900–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Navrotsky A, Mazeina L, Majzlan J. Size-driven structural and thermodynamic complexity in iron oxides. Science 2008;319:1635–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ishiwata S, Taguchi Y, Murakawa H, Onose Y, Tokura Y. Low-magnetic-field control of electric polarization vector in a helimagnet. Science 2008;319:1643–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Korst J, Pronk V. Multimedia Storage and Retrieval. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Paradossi G, Pellegretti P, Trucco A, editors. Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Targeting and Processing Methods for Theranostics. Milano: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Agoshkov VI, Kamenschikov LP, Karepova ED, Shaidurov VV. Numerical Solution of Some Direct and Inverse Mathematical Problems for Tidal Flows. In: Krause E, Shokin YI, Resch M, Shokina N, editors. Computational Science and High Performance Computing III: The 3rd Russian-German Advanced Research Workshop, Novosibirsk, Russia, July 23 - 27, 2007, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008, p. 31–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Geriatric Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Ants Self-Medicate To Ward Off Fungal Infections. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. International Aviation: Competition Issues in the U.S.-U.K. Market. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lamanna CA. The structure and function of subalpine ecosystems in the face of climate change. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. A Darwinian Revival With a Feminist Streak. New York Times 2016:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Geriatric Medicine
AbbreviationEur. Geriatr. Med.
ISSN (print)1878-7649
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology

Other styles