How to format your references using the European Geriatric Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Geriatric Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vaughan DG. Oceans. How does the Antarctic ice sheet affect sea level rise? Science 2005;308:1877–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wyatt MB, McSween HY Jr. Spectral evidence for weathered basalt as an alternative to andesite in the northern lowlands of Mars. Nature 2002;417:263–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bowler C, Karl DM, Colwell RR. Microbial oceanography in a sea of opportunity. Nature 2009;459:180–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mignot T, Shaevitz JW, Hartzell PL, Zusman DR. Evidence that focal adhesion complexes power bacterial gliding motility. Science 2007;315:853–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jensen RC. Risk-Reduction Methods for Occupational Safety and Health. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Laing NG, editor. The Sarcomere and Skeletal Muscle Disease. vol. 642. New York, NY: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
King JA, Chaney EE. Passing for Black in Seventeenth-Century Maryland. In: Beaudry MC, Symonds J, editors. Interpreting the Early Modern World: Transatlantic Perspectives, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2011, p. 87–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Geriatric Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Australia’s 2030 Climate Target Puts Us In The Race, But At The Back. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Funding: Problems With Highway Trust Fund Information Can Affect State Highway Funds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Woodworth JW. Secure Semantic Search over Encrypted Big Data in the Cloud. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Davis JH. U.S. Ends Program Giving ‘Dreamers’ Legal Protection. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Geriatric Medicine
AbbreviationEur. Geriatr. Med.
ISSN (print)1878-7649
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology

Other styles