How to format your references using the EcoHealth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EcoHealth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith C (2003) The silent treatment. Nature 422:342
A journal article with 2 authors
Fields RD, Stevens-Graham B (2002) New insights into neuron-glia communication. Science 298:556–562
A journal article with 3 authors
Pan B, Xiong Y, Steitz TA (2010) How the CCA-adding enzyme selects adenine over cytosine at position 76 of tRNA. Science 330:937–940
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yu L, Misra S, Wang J, Qian S, Foldyna M, Xu J, Shi Y, Johnson E, Cabarrocas PRI (2014) Understanding light harvesting in radial junction amorphous silicon thin film solar cells. Sci Rep 4:4357

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Drake PP, Fabozzi FJ (2009) Foundations and Applications of the Time Value of Money. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Marshall PD, D’Cruz G, McDonald S, Lee K (eds) (2016) Contemporary Publics: Shifting Boundaries in New Media, Technology and Culture. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London
A chapter in an edited book
Frosterus M, Hyvönen E, Laitio J (2011) Creating and Publishing Semantic Metadata about Linked and Open Datasets. In: Wood D (ed) Linking Government Data. Springer, New York, NY, pp 95–112

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EcoHealth.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) Game-Changing Gene Therapy Nullifies Patient’s Sickle Cell Disease. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) The Impact of Federal Commodity Donations on the School Lunch Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marulkar S (2016) Indoor object localization system. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2015) Major Changes in Rhode Island Pension Overhaul. New York Times B6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Fields and Stevens-Graham 2002; Smith 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fields and Stevens-Graham 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Yu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcoHealth
ISSN (print)1612-9202
ISSN (online)1612-9210
Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Other styles