How to format your references using the Spatial Statistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spatial Statistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levitin, C., 2000. Russian PM supports science. Nature 405, 384.
A journal article with 2 authors
Appavoo, K., Haglund, R.F., Jr, 2014. Polarization selective phase-change nanomodulator. Sci. Rep. 4, 6771.
A journal article with 3 authors
Crespo-Hernández, C.E., Cohen, B., Kohler, B., 2005. Base stacking controls excited-state dynamics in A.T DNA. Nature 436, 1141–1144.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Freire-de-Lima, C.G., Nascimento, D.O., Soares, M.B., Bozza, P.T., Castro-Faria-Neto, H.C., de Mello, F.G., DosReis, G.A., Lopes, M.F., 2000. Uptake of apoptotic cells drives the growth of a pathogenic trypanosome in macrophages. Nature 403, 199–203.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Halloran, M., Thies, C., 2012. The Social Media Handbook for Financial Advisors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Herrmann, C., Terhechte, J.P. (Eds.), 2010. European Yearbook of International Economic Law 2010, European Yearbook of International Economic Law. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Burger, M., Hinze, M., Pinnau, R., 2007. Optimization models for semiconductor dopant profiling, in: Cercignani, C., Gabetta, E. (Eds.), Transport Phenomena and Kinetic Theory: Applications to Gases, Semiconductors, Photons, and Biological Systems, Modeling and Simulation in Science, Engineering and Technology. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA, pp. 91–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spatial Statistics.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. New Test Determines How Fast You’re Aging [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Health Information Technology: Efforts Continue but Comprehensive Privacy Approach Needed for National Strategy (No. GAO-07-988T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gao, H., 2006. Extracting Key Features for Analysis and Recognition in Computer Vision (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M.J., 2017. Blue Apron Pursues I.P.O. As Amazon Poses Threat. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Levitin, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Appavoo and Haglund, 2014; Levitin, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Appavoo and Haglund, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Freire-de-Lima et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpatial Statistics
AbbreviationSpat. Stat.
ISSN (print)2211-6753

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