How to format your references using the Spatial Statistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spatial Statistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2003. Cracking the combination. Nature 423, 463.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vanorio, T., Kanitpanyacharoen, W., 2015. ROCK PHYSICS. Rock physics of fibrous rocks akin to Roman concrete explains uplifts at Campi Flegrei Caldera. Science 349, 617–621.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, A., Wang, S., Pacala, S.W., 2012. Comment on “Global correlations in tropical tree species richness and abundance reject neutrality.” Science 336, 1639; author reply 1639.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ge, K., Guermah, M., Yuan, C.-X., Ito, M., Wallberg, A.E., Spiegelman, B.M., Roeder, R.G., 2002. Transcription coactivator TRAP220 is required for PPAR gamma 2-stimulated adipogenesis. Nature 417, 563–567.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang, Z.-G., 2016. Internal Combustion Processes of Liquid Rocket Engines. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Basdevant, J.-L., 2005. Fundamentals In Nuclear Physics: From Nuclear Structure to Cosmology. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Plinke, W., Boison, D., 2014. Epilepsy, in: Lammert, E., Zeeb, M. (Eds.), Metabolism of Human Diseases: Organ Physiology and Pathophysiology. Springer, Vienna, pp. 23–27.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spatial Statistics.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Layer of Sunscreen Discovered on Boiling-Hot Exoplanet [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Public Safety Communications: Preliminary Information on FirstNet’s Efforts to Establish a Nationwide Broadband Network (No. GAO-15-380T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McClain, R., 2009. The role of spirituality/religiosity in the lives of people who are hearing impaired (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B., 2017. Soccer Gets a Second Look. New York Times B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2003; Vanorio and Kanitpanyacharoen, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vanorio and Kanitpanyacharoen, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Ge et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpatial Statistics
AbbreviationSpat. Stat.
ISSN (print)2211-6753

Other styles