How to format your references using the Spatial Statistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spatial Statistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaelin, W.G., Jr, 2012. Molecular biology. Use and abuse of RNAi to study mammalian gene function. Science 337, 421–422.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rossky, P.J., Walker, G.C., 2010. Retrospective. Paul F. Barbara (1953-2010). Science 330, 1191.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xia, K., Rosakis, A.J., Kanamori, H., 2004. Laboratory earthquakes: the sub-Rayleigh-to-supershear rupture transition. Science 303, 1859–1861.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Langevin, Y., Poulet, F., Bibring, J.-P., Schmitt, B., Douté, S., Gondet, B., 2005. Summer evolution of the north polar cap of Mars as observed by OMEGA/Mars Express. Science 307, 1581–1584.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Callahan, K.R., Stetz, G.S., Brooks, L.M., 2011. Project Management Accounting. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Cooper, W.W., 2007. Data Envelopment Analysis: A Comprehensive Text with Models, Applications, References and DEA-Solver Software, Second Edition. ed. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Gauthier, J., 2009. Ethical and Social Issues in Combat Sports: Should Combat Sports Be Banned?, in: Wallace, W.A., Wroble, R.R., Maffulli, N., Kordi, R. (Eds.), Combat Sports Medicine. Springer, London, pp. 73–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spatial Statistics.

Blog post
Carpineti, C., 2017. One Of The World’s Leading Astronomers Has A Dire Warning For Humanity [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. ADP Acquisition: Air Force Logistics System Modernization Projects (No. IMTEC-89-42). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Caballero Suarez, O.L., 2008. Effects of ion correlations in high density plasmas: Neutrino scattering and transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2013. Out of Character, but in His Element. New York Times E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kaelin, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Kaelin, 2012; Rossky and Walker, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rossky and Walker, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Langevin et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpatial Statistics
AbbreviationSpat. Stat.
ISSN (print)2211-6753

Other styles