How to format your references using the Spatial Statistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spatial Statistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schroeder, T., 2008. Imaging stem-cell-driven regeneration in mammals. Nature 453, 345–351.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roberts, L., Jasny, B., 2008. HIV/AIDS: money matters. Science 321, 511.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grieco, F., van Noordwijk, A.J., Visser, M.E., 2002. Evidence for the effect of learning on timing of reproduction in blue tits. Science 296, 136–138.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gogurla, N., Sinha, A.K., Santra, S., Manna, S., Ray, S.K., 2014. Multifunctional Au-ZnO plasmonic nanostructures for enhanced UV photodetector and room temperature NO sensing devices. Sci. Rep. 4, 6483.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wright, J.R., Cooper, J.E., 2014. Introduction to Aircraft Aeroelasticity and Loads. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Napolitano, N.R., Longo, G., Marconi, M., Paolillo, M., Iodice, E. (Eds.), 2016. The Universe of Digital Sky Surveys: A Meeting to Honour the 70th Birthday of Massimo Capaccioli, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Suominen, S., Forsén, T., Volanen, S.-M., Isomaa, B., Vahlberg, T., Eriksson, J., 2012. Lower Incidence of Hypertension among Swedish Speakers as Compared to Finnish Speakers in the Helsinki Birth Cohort from Finland – An Example of Early Programming of Disease?, in: Eriksson-Backa, K., Luoma, A., Krook, E. (Eds.), Exploring the Abyss of Inequalities: 4th International Conference on Well-Being in the Information Society, WIS 2012, Turku, Finland, August 22-24, 2012. Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 52–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spatial Statistics.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. Plans Are Under Way To Contact Any Aliens Around Nearby Stars [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Impact of Illegal Aliens on Public Assistance Programs: Too Little Is Known (No. GGD-78-20). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bagley, C.R., 2010. Pint-sized spectacles: American youth beauty queens and the power(ful) dynamic of the institutionalized pageant (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2016. Defense, Though Hard to Gauge, Gives Cubs a Clear Edge. New York Times B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schroeder, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Roberts and Jasny, 2008; Schroeder, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roberts and Jasny, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Gogurla et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpatial Statistics
AbbreviationSpat. Stat.
ISSN (print)2211-6753

Other styles