How to format your references using the Spatial Statistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spatial Statistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spence, J.C.H., 2003. Materials science. Oxygen in crystals--seeing is believing. Science 299, 839–841.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goonetilleke, N., McMichael, A.J., 2013. Immunology. Antigen processing takes a new direction. Science 340, 937–938.
A journal article with 3 authors
Johnson, Z.L., Cheong, C.-G., Lee, S.-Y., 2012. Crystal structure of a concentrative nucleoside transporter from Vibrio cholerae at 2.4 Å. Nature 483, 489–493.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Maira, S.M., Galetic, I., Brazil, D.P., Kaech, S., Ingley, E., Thelen, M., Hemmings, B.A., 2001. Carboxyl-terminal modulator protein (CTMP), a negative regulator of PKB/Akt and v-Akt at the plasma membrane. Science 294, 374–380.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geren, R.L., 2016. Applying the Building Code. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gentile, G., Noekel, K. (Eds.), 2016. Modelling Public Transport Passenger Flows in the Era of Intelligent Transport Systems: COST Action TU1004 (TransITS), 1st ed. 2016. ed, Springer Tracts on Transportation and Traffic. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Moskowitz, H.S., Grandis, J.R., 2011. Oncogenomics/Proteomics of Head and Neck Cancers, in: Bernier, J. (Ed.), Head and Neck Cancer: Multimodality Management. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 81–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spatial Statistics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Cuba Has A Lung Cancer Vaccine, And Now It Could Be Coming To The USA [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. Deaf Education: The National Mission of Gallaudet’s Elementary and Secondary Schools (No. HRD-87-133). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
El-Amine, Z., 2010. Waking Up in Beirut (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ivory, D., Protess, B., Palmer, G., 2016. In American Towns, Pumping Private Profit From Public Works. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spence, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Goonetilleke and McMichael, 2013; Spence, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goonetilleke and McMichael, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Maira et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpatial Statistics
AbbreviationSpat. Stat.
ISSN (print)2211-6753

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