How to format your references using the Spatial Statistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spatial Statistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C., 2000. US energy agency pulls plug on role in genome project. Nature 404, 4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Murray, A.W., Marks, D., 2001. Can sequencing shed light on cell cycling? Nature 409, 844–846.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bradley, J., Reuter, D., Frings, S., 2001. Facilitation of calmodulin-mediated odor adaptation by cAMP-gated channel subunits. Science 294, 2176–2178.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schefuss, E., Schouten, S., Jansen, J.H.F., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2003. African vegetation controlled by tropical sea surface temperatures in the mid-Pleistocene period. Nature 422, 418–421.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lyshevski, S.E., 2005. Engineering and Scientific Computations Using MATLAB®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gullo, A. (Ed.), 2014. Anaesthesia, Pharmacology, Intensive Care and Emergency A.P.I.C.E: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting - International Symposium on Critical Care Medicine. Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, L., Yang, T., Shi, P., Zhu, Y., 2016. Time-Delay Systems Case, in: Yang, T., Shi, P., Zhu, Y. (Eds.), Analysis and Design of Markov Jump Systems with Complex Transition Probabilities, Studies in Systems, Decision and Control. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 57–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spatial Statistics.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. Astronomers Capture The Fireworks Of Newborn Stars [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. School Technology: Five School Districts’ Experiences in Funding Technology Programs (No. HEHS-98-35). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schoettler, M.R., 2017. A Publish-Subscribe Framework for Embedded Systems: Simplifying the Development Process (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pomfret, J., 2017. Isolating China doesn’t work. New York Times 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain, 2000; Murray and Marks, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Murray and Marks, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Schefuss et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpatial Statistics
AbbreviationSpat. Stat.
ISSN (print)2211-6753

Other styles