How to format your references using the Migration and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Migration and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. (2000). World Bank is urged to give greater priority to science. Nature, 407(6802), 276.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keen, D. A., & Goodwin, A. L. (2015). The crystallography of correlated disorder. Nature, 521(7552), 303–309.
A journal article with 3 authors
Catrysse, P. B., Liu, V., & Fan, S. (2014). Complete power concentration into a single waveguide in large-scale waveguide array lenses. Scientific Reports, 4, 6635.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zinner, D., Alberts, S. C., Nunn, C. L., & Altmann, J. (2002). Evolutionary biology: significance of primate sexual swellings. Nature, 420(6912), 142–143; discussion 143.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meschede, D. (2017). Optics, Light, and Lasers. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Beydeda, S., Book, M., & Gruhn, V. (Eds.). (2005). Model-Driven Software Development. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Figueiredo, M. (2013). The Universal Nature of Human Rights: The Brazilian Stance Within Latin America’s Human Rights Scenario. In R. Arnold (Ed.), The Universalism of Human Rights (pp. 81–101). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Migration and Development.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, August 12). Could Friendly Bacteria Be Used To Treat Cancer? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). GAO Report on Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (AIMD-00-82R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brightbill, R. G. (2012). Bradenton, FL: A Patchwork City [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007, November 4). From Restaurant Fryers, A Petroleum Alternative. New York Times, 14LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Keen & Goodwin, 2015; Macilwain, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Keen & Goodwin, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Catrysse et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zinner et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleMigration and Development
AbbreviationMigr. Dev.
ISSN (print)2163-2324
ISSN (online)2163-2332

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