How to format your references using the Migration and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Migration and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stokstad, E. (2000). SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY: Homegrown Quartz Muddies the Water. Science (New York, N.Y.), 289(5484), 1449–1451.
A journal article with 2 authors
Enright, M. C., & Spratt, B. G. (2011). Genomics. The genomic view of bacterial diversification. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6016), 407–409.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stefanová, I., Dorfman, J. R., & Germain, R. N. (2002). Self-recognition promotes the foreign antigen sensitivity of naive T lymphocytes. Nature, 420(6914), 429–434.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ma, D. D. D., Lee, C. S., Au, F. C. K., Tong, S. Y., & Lee, S. T. (2003). Small-diameter silicon nanowire surfaces. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5614), 1874–1877.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zack, G. M. (2012). Financial Statement Fraud. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ganz, P. A. (Ed.). (2007). Cancer Survivorship: Today and Tomorrow. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Savransky, M. (2016). Thinking With Encounters. In I. Stengers (Ed.), The Adventure of Relevance: An Ethics of Social Inquiry (pp. 89–120). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Migration and Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 24). Throwing Science At Anti-Vaxxers Just Makes Them More Hardline. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Maritime Administration: Efforts To Improve Data on the Federal Ship Financing Program (RCED-87-58). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baghaei Lakeh, A. (2013). Approximate Analytical Solutions of a Generalized van der Pol Oscillator [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Forsythe, M., & Stevenson, A. (2017, June 13). Chief of Chinese Firm Is Detained. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stokstad, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Enright & Spratt, 2011; Stokstad, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Enright & Spratt, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Stefanová et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ma et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleMigration and Development
AbbreviationMigr. Dev.
ISSN (print)2163-2324
ISSN (online)2163-2332

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