How to format your references using the Spatial Demography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spatial Demography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bürger, G. (2007). Comment on “The spatial extent of 20th-century warmth in the context of the past 1200 years.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5833), 1844; author reply 1844.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kath, W. L., & Ottino, J. M. (2007). Chemistry. Rhythm engineering. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5833), 1857–1858.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lohmann, C., Myhr, K. L., & Wong, R. O. L. (2002). Transmitter-evoked local calcium release stabilizes developing dendrites. Nature, 418(6894), 177–181.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dressaire, E., Bee, R., Bell, D. C., Lips, A., & Stone, H. A. (2008). Interfacial polygonal nanopatterning of stable microbubbles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5880), 1198–1201.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jakubith, M. (1998). Grundoperationen und chemische Reaktionstechnik. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Lourenço, R. (2015). AIDA-CMK: Multi-Algorithm Optimization Kernel Applied to Analog IC Sizing. (N. Lourenço & N. Horta, Eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lapidus, M. L., & van Frankenhuijsen, M. (2013). Generalized Fractal Strings Viewed as Measures. In M. van Frankenhuijsen (Ed.), Fractal Geometry, Complex Dimensions and Zeta Functions: Geometry and Spectra of Fractal Strings (pp. 119–135). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spatial Demography.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, December 16). Record-Breaking El Niño Visualized In Extraordinary Detail. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Report to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare on Fundamental Improvements Needed for Timely Promulgation of Health Program Regulations (No. HRD-77-58). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chanderbhan-Forde, S. (2010). Asian Indian mothers’ involvement in their children’s schooling: An analysis of social and cultural capital (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2010, August 1). Savoring The Live Action. New York Times, p. ST9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bürger 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Bürger 2007; Kath and Ottino 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kath and Ottino 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Dressaire et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpatial Demography
AbbreviationSpat. Demogr.
ISSN (print)2364-2289
ISSN (online)2164-7070

Other styles