How to format your references using the Spatial Demography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spatial Demography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, B. D. (2007). Behavior. The ultimate ecosystem engineers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5820), 1797–1798.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rensberger, J. M., & Watabe, M. (2000). Fine structure of bone in dinosaurs, birds and mammals. Nature, 406(6796), 619–622.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yan, S., Huse, D. A., & White, S. R. (2011). Spin-liquid ground state of the S = 1/2 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6034), 1173–1176.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Brusatte, S. L., Benton, M. J., Ruta, M., & Lloyd, G. T. (2008). Superiority, competition, and opportunism in the evolutionary radiation of dinosaurs. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5895), 1485–1488.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Idelberger, K. (2011). The World of Footbridges. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Aleksy, M. (2005). Implementing Distributed Systems with Java and CORBA. (A. Korthaus & M. Schader, Eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ohkita, M., Tokutaka, H., Ohki, M., Oyabu, M., & Fujimura, K. (2013). Classification of Chain-Link and Other Data with Spherical SOM. In P. A. Estévez, J. C. Príncipe, & P. Zegers (Eds.), Advances in Self-Organizing Maps: 9th International Workshop, WSOM 2012 Santiago, Chile, December 12-14, 2012 Proceedings (pp. 35–44). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spatial Demography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 7). Hitchhiking Robot Treks Across Canada. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Air Traffic Control: Surveillance Radar Request for the Cherry Capital Airport (No. RCED-98-118). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duerr, P. S. (2015). Investigation of marine waterjet inlets during turning maneuvers (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2016, October 30). A Piece of Film History, Hidden in a Home Movie. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Rensberger and Watabe 2000; Smith 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rensberger and Watabe 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Brusatte et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpatial Demography
AbbreviationSpat. Demogr.
ISSN (print)2364-2289
ISSN (online)2164-7070

Other styles