How to format your references using the Spatial Demography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spatial Demography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gudmundsson, G. H. (2006). Fortnightly variations in the flow velocity of Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica. Nature, 444(7122), 1063–1064.
A journal article with 2 authors
Frusawa, H., & Matsumoto, Y. (2014). Tuning the size and configuration of nanocarbon microcapsules: aqueous method using optical tweezers. Scientific reports, 4, 4074.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martill, D. M., Tischlinger, H., & Longrich, N. R. (2015). EVOLUTION. A four-legged snake from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6246), 416–419.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Caputi, L., Franke, J., Farrow, S. C., Chung, K., Payne, R. M. E., Nguyen, T.-D., et al. (2018). Missing enzymes in the biosynthesis of the anticancer drug vinblastine in Madagascar periwinkle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 360(6394), 1235–1239.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Monino, J.-L., & Sedkaoui, S. (2016). Big Data, Open Data and Data Development. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tubaro, P. (2014). Against the Hypothesis of the End of Privacy: An Agent-Based Modelling Approach to Social Media. (A. A. Casilli & Y. Sarabi, Eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hoijtink, H., Huntjens, R., Reijntjes, A., Kuiper, R., & Boelen, P. A. (2008). An Evaluation of Bayesian Inequality Constrained Analysis of Variance. In H. Hoijtink, I. Klugkist, & P. A. Boelen (Eds.), Bayesian Evaluation of Informative Hypotheses (pp. 85–108). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spatial Demography.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, April 8). Researchers Identify Three New Fossils as Ancient Human Ancestors. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). NASA Certification of Funds (No. AFMD-93-30ML). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dobson, E. C. (2012). Elizabeth C. Dobson Consulting and Design: A business plan for aging-in-place resources (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cook, L., & Olsen, P. R. (2009, May 24). It Started at the Gas Pump. New York Times, p. BU9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gudmundsson 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Frusawa and Matsumoto 2014; Gudmundsson 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Frusawa and Matsumoto 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Caputi et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpatial Demography
AbbreviationSpat. Demogr.
ISSN (print)2364-2289
ISSN (online)2164-7070

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