How to format your references using the Spatial Demography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spatial Demography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sage, L. (2014). Exoplanets. Nature, 513(7518), 327.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ma, J., & Karaman, I. (2010). Materials science. Expanding the repertoire of shape memory alloys. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5972), 1468–1469.
A journal article with 3 authors
Harris, R. A., Rogers, J., & Milosavljevic, A. (2007). Human-specific changes of genome structure detected by genomic triangulation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5822), 235–237.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lowenstein, T. K., Timofeeff, M. N., Brennan, S. T., Hardie, L. A., & Demicco, R. V. (2001). Oscillations in Phanerozoic seawater chemistry: evidence from fluid inclusions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5544), 1086–1088.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiGrado, B. D., & Thorp, G. A. (2007). The Aboveground Steel Storage Tank Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Krüger, R. (2013). Brand Growth Barriers: Identify, Understand, and Overcome Them. (A. Stumpf, Ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dang, G., & Sui Pheng, L. (2015). Public Investments in Infrastructure for Trade and Economic Development. In L. Sui Pheng (Ed.), Infrastructure Investments in Developing Economies: The Case of Vietnam (pp. 67–80). Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spatial Demography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 29). NASA: Streaks Of Salt On Mars Mean Flowing Water, And Raise New Hopes Of Finding Life. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Surface Transportation: Moving into the 21st Century (No. RCED-99-176). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hsu, Y.-C. (2009). A cultural psychosocial model for depression in elder care institutions: The roles of Socially Supportive Activity and self-transcendence (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L. F. (2007, January 7). Neighbors Protest Flea Market’s Move to Belmont Park. New York Times, p. 14CN5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sage 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ma and Karaman 2010; Sage 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ma and Karaman 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Lowenstein et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpatial Demography
AbbreviationSpat. Demogr.
ISSN (print)2364-2289
ISSN (online)2164-7070

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