How to format your references using the Leisure Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leisure Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Andersson, S. G. E. (2006). Genetics. The bacterial world gets smaller. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5797), 259–260.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xie, W., & Ren, B. (2013). Developmental biology. Enhancing pluripotency and lineage specification. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6143), 245–247.
A journal article with 3 authors
French, S., Lekic, V., & Romanowicz, B. (2013). Waveform tomography reveals channeled flow at the base of the oceanic asthenosphere. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6155), 227–230.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Beaumont, C., Jamieson, R. A., Nguyen, M. H., & Lee, B. (2001). Himalayan tectonics explained by extrusion of a low-viscosity crustal channel coupled to focused surface denudation. Nature, 414(6865), 738–742.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leleux, B., van Swaay, H., & Megally, E. (2015). Private Equity 4.0. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rumbley, L. E., Helms, R. M., Peterson, P. M., & Altbach, P. G. (Eds.). (2014). Global Opportunities and Challenges for Higher Education Leaders: Briefs on Key Themes. SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Bruckner, S., Hüffner, F., Komusiewicz, C., Niedermeier, R., Thiel, S., & Uhlmann, J. (2012). Partitioning into Colorful Components by Minimum Edge Deletions. In J. Kärkkäinen & J. Stoye (Eds.), Combinatorial Pattern Matching: 23rd Annual Symposium, CPM 2012, Helsinki, Finland, July 3-5, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 56–69). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leisure Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 10). Lessons From Cuba on Eliminating the Transmission of HIV From Mother to Child. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Highway Projects: Survey of State Departments of Transportation (GAO-12-637SP, June 2012), an E-supplement to GAO-12-593 (GAO-12-637SP). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Turney, J. J. (2014). Police supervisory attributes that influence attitude towards Critical Incident Stress Management programs [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, October 29). Refreshing Series Provides Hope. New York Times, B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Andersson, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Andersson, 2006; Xie & Ren, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xie & Ren, 2013)
  • Three authors: (French et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Beaumont et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleLeisure Studies
ISSN (print)0261-4367
ISSN (online)1466-4496
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles