How to format your references using the Leisure Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leisure Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gravitz, L. (2014). Liver cancer. Nature, 516(7529), S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Giovannoni, S. J., & Stingl, U. (2005). Molecular diversity and ecology of microbial plankton. Nature, 437(7057), 343–348.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taylor, G. K., Nudds, R. L., & Thomas, A. L. R. (2003). Flying and swimming animals cruise at a Strouhal number tuned for high power efficiency. Nature, 425(6959), 707–711.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
deYoung, B., Heath, M., Werner, F., Chai, F., Megrey, B., & Monfray, P. (2004). Challenges of modeling ocean basin ecosystems. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5676), 1463–1466.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris, A. S. (2006). ISO 14000 Environmental Management Standards. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Abascal, J., Barbosa, S., Fetter, M., Gross, T., Palanque, P., & Winckler, M. (Eds.). (2015). Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2015: 15th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Bamberg, Germany, September 14-18, 2015, Proceedings, Part I (1st ed. 2015, Vol. 9296). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhu, J., Yang, M., Li, S., & Zhao, T. (2016). Learning Bilingual Sentence Representations for Quality Estimation of Machine Translation. In M. Yang & S. Liu (Eds.), Machine Translation: 12th China Workshop, CWMT 2016, Urumqi, China, August 25–26, 2016, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 35–42). Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leisure Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 30). 10 Space Myths We Need to Stop Believing. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). FAA Appropriation Issues (No. T-RCED-89-20). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buckley, M. (2009). Weaving Into the Glimmer (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley, G. (2016, November 15). Where Everybody Knows Your Name and Accepts Your Politics. New York Times, p. D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gravitz, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Giovannoni & Stingl, 2005; Gravitz, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Giovannoni & Stingl, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Taylor, Nudds, & Thomas, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (deYoung et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleLeisure Studies
ISSN (print)0261-4367
ISSN (online)1466-4496
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

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