How to format your references using the Leisure Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leisure Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenberg, R. S. (2003). Science and the law. Patent swords and shields. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5609), 1018–1019.
A journal article with 2 authors
Settembre, C., & Ballabio, A. (2014). Cell metabolism: autophagy transcribed. Nature, 516(7529), 40–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shevenell, A. E., Kennett, J. P., & Lea, D. W. (2004). Middle Miocene Southern Ocean cooling and Antarctic cryosphere expansion. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5691), 1766–1770.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Huang, F., Ma, Y., Li, W., Liu, X., Hu, L., & Chen, D. (2014). 2.7 μm emission of high thermally and chemically durable glasses based on AlF3. Scientific Reports, 4, 3607.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knuth, E. (2011). Trading Between the Lines. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pommier, Y. (Ed.). (2012). DNA Topoisomerases and Cancer (1st ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ferrari, A., Reverberi, S., & Benedetti, M. G. (2013). Varismo del retropiede — supinazione o inversione dell’avampiede. In S. Reverberi & M. G. Benedetti (Eds.), L’arto inferiore nella paralisi cerebrale infantile: Semeiotica e chirurgia funzionale (pp. 87–109). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leisure Studies.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, July 22). How A Dog Copes With Stress Depends On Its Temperament. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Attack Warning: Lack of System Architecture Contributes to Major Development Problems (IMTEC-92-52). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCarroll, M. L. (2005). Exercise and Airway Clearing Devices in Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programs for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Turkewitz, J. (2013, October 15). A State Inquiry Is Said To Target Job Agencies. New York Times, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenberg, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenberg, 2003; Settembre & Ballabio, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Settembre & Ballabio, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Shevenell et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Huang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLeisure Studies
ISSN (print)0261-4367
ISSN (online)1466-4496
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

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