How to format your references using the Leisure Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leisure Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crutzen, P. J. (2002). Geology of mankind. Nature, 415(6867), 23.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gao, L., & Theuns, T. (2007). Lighting the universe with filaments. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5844), 1527–1530.
A journal article with 3 authors
Derry, W. B., Putzke, A. P., & Rothman, J. H. (2001). Caenorhabditis elegans p53: role in apoptosis, meiosis, and stress resistance. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5542), 591–595.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Courcelle, J., Donaldson, J. R., Chow, K.-H., & Courcelle, C. T. (2003). DNA damage-induced replication fork regression and processing in Escherichia coli. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5609), 1064–1067.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pijaudier-Cabot, G., La Borderie, C., Reess, T., Chen, W., Maurel, O., Rey-Berbeder, F., & de Ferron, A. (2016). Electrohydraulic Fracturing of Rocks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Shi, Y. Q. (Ed.). (2008). Transactions on Data Hiding and Multimedia Security III (Vol. 4920). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
de Freitas, C. R., & Perry, M. (2012). The Land. In M. Perry (Ed.), New Environmentalism: Managing New Zealand’s Environmental Diversity (pp. 133–161). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leisure Studies.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, June 13). Check Out What Pops Out When This Object Is Cut Open. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1969). Review Of Status Of Development Toward Establishment Of A Unified National Communications System (B-166655). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grannis, K. S. (2010). Secular spiritual quests in modern American novels, 1922–1960 [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kerry, J. (2017, January 19). What We Got Right. New York Times, A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crutzen, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Crutzen, 2002; Gao & Theuns, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gao & Theuns, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Derry et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Courcelle et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLeisure Studies
ISSN (print)0261-4367
ISSN (online)1466-4496
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

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