How to format your references using the Leisure Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leisure Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow, J. M. (2012). Obesity: insensitive issue. Nature, 486(7403), S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krauss, L. M., & Chaboyer, B. (2003). Age estimates of globular clusters in the Milky Way: constraints on cosmology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5603), 65–69.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sugase, K., Dyson, H. J., & Wright, P. E. (2007). Mechanism of coupled folding and binding of an intrinsically disordered protein. Nature, 447(7147), 1021–1025.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kato, T., Inagaki, H., Yamada, K., Kogo, H., Ohye, T., Kowa, H., Nagaoka, K., Taniguchi, M., Emanuel, B. S., & Kurahashi, H. (2006). Genetic variation affects de novo translocation frequency. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5763), 971.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levene, M. (2010). An Introduction to Search Engines and Web Navigation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bassan, M. (Ed.). (2014). Advanced Interferometers and the Search for Gravitational Waves: Lectures from the First VESF School on Advanced Detectors for Gravitational Waves (Vol. 404). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sursock, A. (2016). The Shift to Strategic Internationalisation Approaches. In M. J. Rosa, C. S. Sarrico, O. Tavares, & A. Amaral (Eds.), Cross-Border Higher Education and Quality Assurance: Commerce, the Services Directive and Governing Higher Education (pp. 73–91). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leisure Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, May 23). Chelyabinsk Meteorite Was The Result of Asteroid Collision. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Broadcast Exclusivity Rules: Effects of Elimination Would Depend on Other Federal Actions and Industry Response (GAO-15-441). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parker, H. A. (2017). Virtual Mate Poaching: A study of the tactics used to poach a potential mate on Social Networking Sites [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, September 3). Two Astros-Mets Games Offer Succor to Houston. New York Times, SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crow, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Crow, 2012; Krauss & Chaboyer, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krauss & Chaboyer, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Sugase et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kato et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleLeisure Studies
ISSN (print)0261-4367
ISSN (online)1466-4496
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

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