How to format your references using the Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wesnousky, S.G.: Predicting the endpoints of earthquake ruptures. Nature. 444, 358–360 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacobsen, S.B., Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Geochemistry. How old is planet Earth? Science. 300, 1513–1514 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu, G., Golding, G.B., Dean, A.M.: The selective cause of an ancient adaptation. Science. 307, 1279–1282 (2005)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhou, J., Hu, Y., Yin, Z.-Q., Wang, Z.D., Zhu, S.-L., Xue, Z.-Y.: High fidelity quantum state transfer in electromechanical systems with intermediate coupling. Sci. Rep. 4, 6237 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bowers, D., House, A., Owens, D.: Getting Started in Health Research. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2011)
An edited book
Frank-Kamenetskaya, O.V., Panova, E.G., Vlasov, D.Y. eds: Biogenic—Abiogenic Interactions in Natural and Anthropogenic Systems. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Lifschitz, V.: Datalog Programs and Their Stable Models. In: Moor, O. de, Gottlob, G., Furche, T., and Sellers, A. (eds.) Datalog Reloaded: First International Workshop, Datalog 2010, Oxford, UK, March 16-19, 2010. Revised Selected Papers. pp. 78–87. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Watch a Great White Attack a SharkCam,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Reply to the Health, Education, and Welfare on Recommendations Made in the GAO Report to the Congress. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1972)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nannapaneni, D.: Factors associated with HPV acceptability among parents, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K.: World Briefing | Europe: Lithuania: Presidential Runoff, (2002)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wesnousky 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Jacobsen and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. 2003; Wesnousky 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jacobsen and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhou et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLetters in Spatial and Resource Sciences
AbbreviationLett. Spat. Resour. Sci.
ISSN (print)1864-4031
ISSN (online)1864-404X
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Geography, Planning and Development
Urban Studies

Other styles