How to format your references using the Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jahn, R.: Neuroscience. A neuronal receptor for botulinum toxin. Science. 312, 540–541 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
Austin, A.T., Vivanco, L.: Plant litter decomposition in a semi-arid ecosystem controlled by photodegradation. Nature. 442, 555–558 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Z.-Z., Zhang, F.-C., Wang, Q.-H.: Majorana modes in a topological insulator/s-wave superconductor heterostructure. Sci. Rep. 4, 6363 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
van de Wal, R.S.W., Boot, W., van den Broeke, M.R., Smeets, C.J.P.P., Reijmer, C.H., Donker, J.J.A., Oerlemans, J.: Large and rapid melt-induced velocity changes in the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science. 321, 111–113 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yamaguchi, R., Fujita, K.-I.: Ligand Platforms in Homogenous Catalytic Reactions with Metals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2014)
An edited book
Okereke, O.I. ed: Prevention of Late-Life Depression: Current Clinical Challenges and Priorities. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Panda, R.K.: Trend and Pattern of Crop Diversification in Odisha. In: Ghosh, M., Sarkar, D., and Roy, B.C. (eds.) Diversification of Agriculture in Eastern India. pp. 59–67. Springer India, New Delhi (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: We Mightn’t Like It, But There Are Ethical Reasons To Use Animals In Medical Research


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Student Loans: Direct Loan Default Rates. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2000)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Madigan, J.P.: Regulation of localization and function of the Rho family small GTPase, Rnd3, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J.R.: After the Deluge, Going On With the Show, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jahn 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Austin and Vivanco 2006; Jahn 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Austin and Vivanco 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (van de Wal et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleLetters in Spatial and Resource Sciences
AbbreviationLett. Spat. Resour. Sci.
ISSN (print)1864-4031
ISSN (online)1864-404X
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Geography, Planning and Development
Urban Studies

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