How to format your references using the Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moskovits, M.: Applied physics. Hot electrons cross boundaries. Science. 332, 676–677 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Loeb, A., Waxman, E.: Cosmic gamma-ray background from structure formation in the intergalactic medium. Nature. 405, 156–158 (2000)
A journal article with 3 authors
Kicheva, A., Cohen, M., Briscoe, J.: Developmental pattern formation: insights from physics and biology. Science. 338, 210–212 (2012)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kohli, P., Harrell, C.C., Cao, Z., Gasparac, R., Tan, W., Martin, C.R.: DNA-functionalized nanotube membranes with single-base mismatch selectivity. Science. 305, 984–986 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh, A.K.M.E., Arashi, M., Tabatabaey, S.M.M.: Statistical Inference for Models with Multivariate t -Distributed Errors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2014)
An edited book
Apolloni, B., Howlett, R.J., Jain, L. eds: Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 11th International Conference, KES 2007, XVII Italian Workshop on Neural Networks, Vietri sul Mare, Italy, September 12-14, 2007. Proceedings, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Mallikarjuna, K., Sushma, N.J., Deva Prasad Raju, B.: Novel, Fast, Bio-Derivatized Sonochemical Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by Using Piper betle Leaf Broth as a Reducing and Capping Agent. In: Giri, P.K., Goswami, D.K., and Perumal, A. (eds.) Advanced Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Advanced Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Dec 8-10, 2011, Guwahati, India. pp. 41–49. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences.

Blog post
Davis, J.: Onset Of Spring In The UK Is A Week Earlier Due To Artificial Lights,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Contract Management: Few Competing Proposals for Large DOD Information Technology Orders. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2000)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Malherek, M.N.: The Prevalence and Predictors of Parental Corporal Punishment in the United States, (2016)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vaissié, C.: Can Putin influence the French election?, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moskovits 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Loeb and Waxman 2000; Moskovits 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Loeb and Waxman 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Kohli et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleLetters in Spatial and Resource Sciences
AbbreviationLett. Spat. Resour. Sci.
ISSN (print)1864-4031
ISSN (online)1864-404X
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Geography, Planning and Development
Urban Studies

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