How to format your references using the Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D.: Are mega-mergers good medicine for the pharmaceutical industry? Nature. 405, 257–258 (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Unniraman, S., Schatz, D.G.: Strand-biased spreading of mutations during somatic hypermutation. Science. 317, 1227–1230 (2007)
A journal article with 3 authors
Raviv, U., Laurat, P., Klein, J.: Fluidity of water confined to subnanometre films. Nature. 413, 51–54 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Blanchon, P., Eisenhauer, A., Fietzke, J., Liebetrau, V.: Rapid sea-level rise and reef back-stepping at the close of the last interglacial highstand. Nature. 458, 881–884 (2009)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beecken, W.H., Beecken, C.A.: Fraud Examination Casebook with Documents. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2017)
An edited book
Jeong, H.Y., S. Obaidat, M., Yen, N.Y., Park, J.J. (jong H. eds: Advances in Computer Science and its Applications: CSA 2013. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Le, N.-A., Brown, W.V.: Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins. In: Grundy, S.M. (ed.) Atlas of Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Syndrome. pp. 59–91. Springer, New York, NY (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences.

Blog post
Hamilton, K.: “Scratching” Sounds A Woman Heard Were Caused By Spider Living In Her Ear,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Methodology Used in Lease-Versus-Purchase Decision for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1976)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hufnagel, D.: Search for the Cabibbo-Supressed D+ Meson Decays D+ → π+π 0 and D+ → K+ π0, (2005)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K.: World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Chechen Issues New Threat, (2004)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gershon 2000; Unniraman and Schatz 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Unniraman and Schatz 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Blanchon et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleLetters in Spatial and Resource Sciences
AbbreviationLett. Spat. Resour. Sci.
ISSN (print)1864-4031
ISSN (online)1864-404X
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Geography, Planning and Development
Urban Studies

Other styles