How to format your references using the South African Journal of Botany citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Journal of Botany. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q., 2008. Westernizing Eastern-bloc science. Nature 453, 558–559.
A journal article with 2 authors
Santen, L., Krauth, W., 2000. Absence of thermodynamic phase transition in a model glass former. Nature 405, 550–551.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayashi, K., de Sousa Lopes, S.M.C., Surani, M.A., 2007. Germ cell specification in mice. Science 316, 394–396.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Koss, M.J., Blecha, L., Bernhard, P., Hung, C.-L., Lu, J.R., Trakthenbrot, B., Treister, E., Weigel, A., Sartori, L.F., Mushotzky, R., Schawinski, K., Ricci, C., Veilleux, S., Sanders, D.B., 2018. A population of luminous accreting black holes with hidden mergers. Nature 563, 214–216.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Youssef, H.A., 2015. Machining of Stainless Steels and Super Alloys. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Kundu, A. (Ed.), 2007. Tsunami and Nonlinear Waves. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Misnikov, Y., 2016. Democratisating the Eastern Partnership in the Digital Age: Challenges and Opportunities of Political Association Beyond the Language of Official Texts, in: Kerikmäe, T., Chochia, A. (Eds.), Political and Legal Perspectives of the EU Eastern Partnership Policy. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 59–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Journal of Botany.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. How We Invented A Star Trek-Style Sonic Tractor Beam [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Travel of Government Officials on Government Aircraft (No. T-NSIAD-96-85). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liza, J.S., 2009. Mentors’ perceptions of bullying in middle and high school settings (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Peters, J.F., Nikas, J., Lyons, E., 2017. Youth in San Diego: Skateboards, Beach Hangs and Chicano Culture. New York Times ST4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Santen and Krauth, 2000; Schiermeier, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Santen and Krauth, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Koss et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Journal of Botany
AbbreviationS. Afr. J. Bot.
ISSN (print)0254-6299
ScopePlant Science

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