How to format your references using the The American Surgeon citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Surgeon. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A. SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORATION: Push to Revive Pluto Mission May Mean Competition for JPL. Science. 2000 Nov 17;290(5495):1270–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tomasello M, Call J. Methodological challenges in the study of primate cognition. Science. 2011 Dec 2;334(6060):1227–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rudolph ML, Lekić V, Lithgow-Bertelloni C. Viscosity jump in Earth’s mid-mantle. Science. 2015 Dec 11;350(6266):1349–52.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Titova LV, Ayesheshim AK, Golubov A, Rodriguez-Juarez R, Woycicki R, Hegmann FA, et al. Intense THz pulses down-regulate genes associated with skin cancer and psoriasis: a new therapeutic avenue? Sci Rep. 2013;3:2363.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abracen J, Looman J. Treatment of High-Risk Sexual Offenders. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Caroleo FE, Pastore F, editors. The Labour Market Impact of the EU Enlargement: A New Regional Geography of Europe? Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD; 2010. XIV, 342 p. 59 illus. (AIEL Series in Labour Economics).
A chapter in an edited book
Koriche F. Learning to Assign Degrees of Belief in Relational Domains. In: Blockeel H, Ramon J, Shavlik J, Tadepalli P, editors. Inductive Logic Programming: 17th International Conference, ILP 2007, Corvallis, OR, USA, June 19-21, 2007, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 25–6. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Surgeon.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Investigate How Dino-Sores Healed [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Human Capital: Attracting and Retaining a High-Quality Information Technology Workforce. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Oct. Report No.: GAO-02-113T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Escamilla D. How performance following the implementation of a new structure affects employee engagement [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. LCD Soundsystem Tops Album Chart. New York Times. 2017 Sep 11;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Surgeon
ISSN (print)0003-1348
ISSN (online)1555-9823

Other styles