How to format your references using the The American Surgeon citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Surgeon. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Norreys PA. Physics. Complexity in fusion plasmas. Science. 2008 Feb 29;319(5867):1193–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hager R, Johnstone RA. The genetic basis of family conflict resolution in mice. Nature. 2003 Jan 30;421(6922):533–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Heuer AH, Jia CL, Lagerlöf KPD. The core structure of basal dislocations in deformed sapphire (alpha-Al₂O₃). Science. 2010 Nov 26;330(6008):1227–31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gachet Y, Tournier S, Millar JB, Hyams JS. A MAP kinase-dependent actin checkpoint ensures proper spindle orientation in fission yeast. Nature. 2001 Jul 19;412(6844):352–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gustafsson F. Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2001.
An edited book
Devarajan PV, Jain S, editors. Targeted Drug Delivery : Concepts and Design. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XVIII, 790 p. 125 illus., 103 illus. in color. (Advances in Delivery Science and Technology).
A chapter in an edited book
Schrammel P, Kroening D, Brain M, Martins R, Teige T, Bienmüller T. Successful Use of Incremental BMC in the Automotive Industry. In: Núñez M, Güdemann M, editors. Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems: 20th International Workshop, FMICS 2015 Oslo, Norway, June 22-23, 2015 Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 62–77. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Surgeon.

Blog post
Andrew D. 8 Genetic Mutations That Can Give You “Superpowers” [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Railroad Safety: Accident Trends and FRA Safety Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Jan. Report No.: T-RCED-92-23.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tambornini TF. Supportive and subsidized housing solutions for Sonoma County: A grant project [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. A Human Superstar Among the Superheroes. New York Times. 2012 Oct 12;C33.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Surgeon
ISSN (print)0003-1348
ISSN (online)1555-9823

Other styles