How to format your references using the The American Surgeon citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Surgeon. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Smaglik P. Wrapped in red tape. Nature. 2003 Jun 12;423(6941):783.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Hinton GE, Salakhutdinov RR. Reducing the dimensionality of data with neural networks. Science. 2006 Jul 28;313(5786):504–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Cohen J, Rau A, Brüning K. Climate change. Bridging the Montreal-Kyoto gap. Science. 2009 Nov 13;326(5955):940–1.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Yip CK, Kimbrough TG, Felise HB, Vuckovic M, Thomas NA, Pfuetzner RA, et al. Structural characterization of the molecular platform for type III secretion system assembly. Nature. 2005 Jun 2;435(7042):702–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Roy D, Rao GV. Elements of Structural Dynamics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Mahlich JC, Pascha W, editors. Innovation and Technology in Korea: Challenges of a Newly Advanced Economy. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD; 2007. X, 297 p.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Herkenhoff L, Fogli J. Normal Distributions. In: Fogli J, editor. Applied Statistics for Business and Management using Microsoft Excel. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 79–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Surgeon.

Blog post
1.
Taub B. Amazon Completes First Drone Delivery In Just 13 Minutes [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/technology/amazon-completes-first-drone-delivery-just-13-minutes/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Federal Short Takeoff and Landing Transport Programs: Status and Needs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Feb. Report No.: 101787.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Seevaratnam N. Forecasting Optimality in Resource Utilization for Cloud Computing Systems to Maximize Quality of Service [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Vecsey G. A Heady Nightcap in a City Not Known for Sleeping. New York Times. 2012 Sep 2;SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Surgeon
ISSN (print)0003-1348
ISSN (online)1555-9823
Scope

Other styles