How to format your references using the The American Surgeon citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Surgeon. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walker C. The fun of science. Science. 2014 Jun 13;344(6189):1314.
A journal article with 2 authors
Druzd D, Scheiermann C. Immunology. Some monocytes got rhythm. Science. 2013 Sep 27;341(6153):1462–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deecke VB, Slater PJB, Ford JKB. Selective habituation shapes acoustic predator recognition in harbour seals. Nature. 2002 Nov 14;420(6912):171–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Humbles AA, Lu B, Nilsson CA, Lilly C, Israel E, Fujiwara Y, et al. A role for the C3a anaphylatoxin receptor in the effector phase of asthma. Nature. 2000 Aug 31;406(6799):998–1001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoschette JA. The Engineer’s Career Guide. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Armenio V, Sarkar S, editors. Environmental Stratified Flows. Vienna: Springer; 2005. VII, 232 p. (CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences, Courses and Lectures; vol. 479).
A chapter in an edited book
Tum M, Günther KP, Kappas M. A Process-Based Vegetation Model for Estimating Agricultural Bioenergy Potentials. In: Ruppert H, Kappas M, Ibendorf J, editors. Sustainable Bioenergy Production - An Integrated Approach. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 97–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Surgeon.

Blog post
Andrews R. France To Shut Down All Its Coal Power Plants By 2023. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Department of Education: Guaranteed Student Loan Program Vulnerabilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Nov. Report No.: GAO-03-268R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valdovinos G. Entre familia (among family): A parent training and social support program for Latino families. A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. A Texas Address Migrates. New York Times. 2010 Aug 5;E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Surgeon
ISSN (print)0003-1348
ISSN (online)1555-9823

Other styles