How to format your references using the The American Surgeon citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Surgeon. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott A. Last-minute floods sink research. Nature. 2001 Oct 4;413(6855):443.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carvalho AB, Clark AG. Y chromosome of D. pseudoobscura is not homologous to the ancestral Drosophila Y. Science. 2005 Jan 7;307(5706):108–10.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gridi-Papp M, Rand AS, Ryan MJ. Animal communication: complex call production in the túngara frog. Nature. 2006 May 4;441(7089):38.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Imamizu H, Miyauchi S, Tamada T, Sasaki Y, Takino R, Pütz B, et al. Human cerebellar activity reflecting an acquired internal model of a new tool. Nature. 2000 Jan 13;403(6766):192–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Subramanian MN. Polymer Blends and Composites. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Hunter W. Genome Mapping and Genomics in Arthropods. Kole C, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. XVIII, 122 p. (Genome Mapping Genomics Animals; vol. 1).
A chapter in an edited book
Hoet PHM, Geys J, Nemmar A, Nemery B. Inhalation of Nanomaterials: Short Overview of the Local and Systemic Effects. In: Simeonova PP, Opopol N, Luster MI, editors. Nanotechnology – Toxicological Issues and Environmental Safety and Environmental Safety. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. p. 77–90. (NATO Science for Peace and Security Series).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Surgeon.

Blog post
Andrew E. Maddest Scientists Of All Time [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Issues Raised concerning the Report, “The National School Lunch Program: Is It Working?” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Nov. Report No.: PAD-78-43.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adrian DE. School scheduling models and the achievement of at-risk students: A causal-comparative study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis J. Her Peers Made School Look Easy. With Hard Work, She’s Catching Up. New York Times. 2017 Oct 29;A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Surgeon
ISSN (print)0003-1348
ISSN (online)1555-9823

Other styles