How to format your references using the Sophia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sophia (SOPHIA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kiessling, W. (2006). Paleoecology. Life’s complexity cast in stone. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5803), 1254–1255.
A journal article with 2 authors
Raymo, M. E., & Huybers, P. (2008). Unlocking the mysteries of the ice ages. Nature, 451(7176), 284–285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Beatty, C. D., Beirinckx, K., & Sherratt, T. N. (2004). The evolution of müllerian mimicry in multispecies communities. Nature, 431(7004), 63–66.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Colosimo, P. F., Hosemann, K. E., Balabhadra, S., Villarreal, G., Jr, Dickson, M., Grimwood, J., et al. (2005). Widespread parallel evolution in sticklebacks by repeated fixation of Ectodysplasin alleles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5717), 1928–1933.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nasr, V. G., & DiNardo, J. A. (2017). The Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia Handbook. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Montijano, E. (2015). Distributed Consensus with Visual Perception in Multi-Robot Systems. (C. Sagüés, Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Yampolskiy, R. V., Rebolledo-Mendez, J. D., & Hindi, M. M. (2014). Password Protected Visual Cryptography via Cellular Automaton Rule 30. In Y. Q. Shi, F. Liu, & W. Yan (Eds.), Transactions on Data Hiding and Multimedia Security IX: Special Issue on Visual Cryptography (pp. 57–67). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sophia.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, March 17). Scientists Convert Cancer Cells Into Harmless Immune Cells. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Update of Economic Analysis of Impact Aid Program Reflecting the Educational Amendments of 1974 (No. HRD-78-132). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cannon, C. A. (2017). Comparison of language arts scores between computerized and teacher differentiation of instruction (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, R. (2000, March 26). Home Sweet Hole. New York Times, p. 79.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kiessling 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Kiessling 2006; Raymo and Huybers 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Raymo and Huybers 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Colosimo et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSophia
ISSN (print)0038-1527
ISSN (online)1873-930X
Religious studies

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