How to format your references using the Sophia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sophia (SOPHIA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Doudna, J. (2015). Perspective: Embryo editing needs scrutiny. Nature, 528(7580), S6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, J., & Diamond, J. (2005). China’s environment in a globalizing world. Nature, 435(7046), 1179–1186.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dahal, D., Liu, S., & Oeding, J. (2014). The carbon cycle and hurricanes in the United States between 1900 and 2011. Scientific reports, 4, 5197.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Snelgrove, R. J., Jackson, P. L., Hardison, M. T., Noerager, B. D., Kinloch, A., Gaggar, A., et al. (2010). A critical role for LTA4H in limiting chronic pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6000), 90–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Firth-Cozens, J., & Harrison, J. (2010). How to Survive in Medicine. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Weber, M., & Münch, U. (Eds.). (2014). Tomography of the Earth’s Crust: From Geophysical Sounding to Real-Time Monitoring: GEOTECHNOLOGIEN Science Report No. 21. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Zandvliet, D. B., Holmes, M., & Starzner, M. (2011). Seaquaria in Schools. In L. D. Yore, E. V. der Flier-Keller, D. W. Blades, T. W. Pelton, & D. B. Zandvliet (Eds.), Pacific CRYSTAL Centre for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Literacy: Lessons Learned (pp. 83–97). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sophia.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, August 3). A Major Barrier To Drone Deliveries In The US Is Finally Being Lifted. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). No Child Left Behind Act: Improved Accessibility to Education’s Information Could Help States Further Implement Teacher Qualification Requirements (No. GAO-06-25). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gupta, P. (2017). Enhanced acquisition of data in the presence of transfaulty nodes in a wireless sensor network (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kinsley, M. (2017, May 27). Paid Leave Counts as Progress. New York Times, p. SR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Doudna 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Doudna 2015; Liu and Diamond 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Diamond 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Snelgrove et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleSophia
ISSN (print)0038-1527
ISSN (online)1873-930X
Religious studies

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