How to format your references using the Sophia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sophia (SOPHIA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Monack, D. M. (2011). Immunology: recognition of a unique partner. Nature, 477(7366), 543–544.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, B. H., & Kwon, J. W. (2014). Plasmon-assisted radiolytic energy conversion in aqueous solutions. Scientific reports, 4, 5249.
A journal article with 3 authors
Acquisti, C., Kleffe, J., & Collins, S. (2007). Oxygen content of transmembrane proteins over macroevolutionary time scales. Nature, 445(7123), 47–52.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhao, Y., Rodrigo, J., Hoveyda, A. H., & Snapper, M. L. (2006). Enantioselective silyl protection of alcohols catalysed by an amino-acid-based small molecule. Nature, 443(7107), 67–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murphy, R. (2010). Dynamic Assessment, Intelligence and Measurement. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Michler, P. (Ed.). (2009). Single Semiconductor Quantum Dots. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sodnik, J., & Tomažič, S. (2015). Spatial Auditory Interfaces. In S. Tomažič (Ed.), Spatial Auditory Human-Computer Interfaces (pp. 45–79). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sophia.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, September 9). Costa Rica Has Been Running On 100% Renewable Electricity For 76 Days... And Counting. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Automated Welfare Systems: Historical Costs and Projections (No. AIMD-94-52FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shroff, N. (2012). Efficient sensing, summarization and classification of videos (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haigney, S., & Cooper, M. (2017, September 5). Who’s Calling? It May Be The Opera. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Monack 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Kim and Kwon 2014; Monack 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Kwon 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSophia
ISSN (print)0038-1527
ISSN (online)1873-930X
Religious studies

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