How to format your references using the Sophia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sophia (SOPHIA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beattie, G. A. (2015). Microbiomes: Curating communities from plants. Nature, 528(7582), 340–341.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elowitz, M., & Lim, W. A. (2010). Build life to understand it. Nature, 468(7326), 889–890.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mungall, J. E., Ames, D. E., & Hanley, J. J. (2004). Geochemical evidence from the Sudbury structure for crustal redistribution by large bolide impacts. Nature, 429(6991), 546–548.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Giampieri, G., Dougherty, M. K., Smith, E. J., & Russell, C. T. (2006). A regular period for Saturn’s magnetic field that may track its internal rotation. Nature, 441(7089), 62–64.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Korhonen, J., Savolainen, T., & Soininen, J. (2013). Deploying IPv6 in 3GPP Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Eraydin, A., & Taşan-Kok, T. (Eds.). (2013). Resilience Thinking in Urban Planning (Vol. 106). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Boskou, S., & Engelbrekt, K. (2016). Keeping a Low Profile: Greek Strategic Culture and International Military Operations. In M. Britz (Ed.), European Participation in International Operations: The Role of Strategic Culture (pp. 77–99). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sophia.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 24). Study Suggests Babies Only Remember Good Times. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Airport Infrastructure: Unresolved Issues Make It Difficult to Determine the Cost to Serve New Large Aircraft (No. GAO-02-251). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ichiyama, J. (2014). Early goal-directed therapy in adult septic patients (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. (2002, September 29). Jersey City Show Features a Twist. New York Times, p. 89.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Beattie 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Beattie 2015; Elowitz and Lim 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Elowitz and Lim 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Giampieri et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSophia
ISSN (print)0038-1527
ISSN (online)1873-930X
Religious studies

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