How to format your references using the Sophia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sophia (SOPHIA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Inan, U. (2005). Atmospheric science. Gamma rays made on Earth. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5712), 1054–1055.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wu, Z., & Curtin, W. A. (2015). The origins of high hardening and low ductility in magnesium. Nature, 526(7571), 62–67.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brose, U., Williams, R. J., & Martinez, N. D. (2003). Comment on “Foraging adaptation and the relationship between food-web complexity and stability.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5635), 918; author reply 918.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Johnson, J. B., Lees, J. M., Gerst, A., Sahagian, D., & Varley, N. (2008). Long-period earthquakes and co-eruptive dome inflation seen with particle image velocimetry. Nature, 456(7220), 377–381.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilmott, P., & Orrell, D. (2017). The Money Formula. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Javed, O. (2008). Automated Multi-Camera Surveillance: Algorithms and Practice. (M. Shah, Ed.) (Vol. 10). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Torero, J. L. (2006). THE RISK IMPOSED BY FIRE TO BUILDINGS AND HOW TO ADDRESS IT. In K. V. Frolov & G. B. Baecher (Eds.), Protection of Civilian Infrastructure from Acts of Terrorism (pp. 41–57). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sophia.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, March 29). Motor Neuron Disease Linked To Schizophrenia, And Treatment Might Be Getting Closer. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Higher Education: School’s Use of the Antitrust Exemption Has Not Significantly Affected College Affordability or Likelihood of Student Enrollment to Date (No. GAO-06-963). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vaughn, E. L. (2013). Find me on Facebook: A new typology for categorizing online personalities (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2016, July 31). Classic Words, Fresh Looks. New York Times, p. BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Inan 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Inan 2005; Wu and Curtin 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wu and Curtin 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Johnson et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleSophia
ISSN (print)0038-1527
ISSN (online)1873-930X
Religious studies

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