How to format your references using the Biochemical Systematics and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Martinson, B.C., 2007. Universities and the money fix. Nature 449, 141–142.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson, L.D.S., Jameson, S.C., 2009. Immunology. A chronic need for IL-21. Science 324, 1525–1526.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ortega, F., Escaso, F., Sanz, J.L., 2010. A bizarre, humped Carcharodontosauria (Theropoda) from the lower cretaceous of Spain. Nature 467, 203–206.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kawamichi, T., Haneda, T., Kawano, M., Fujita, M., 2009. X-ray observation of a transient hemiaminal trapped in a porous network. Nature 461, 633–635.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burk, F., 1997. Lebesgue Measure and Integration. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Geem, Z.W. (Ed.), 2009. Music-Inspired Harmony Search Algorithm: Theory and Applications, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Capello, R., Fratesi, U., Resmini, L., 2011. Spatial Patterns of Globalization Trends, in: Fratesi, U., Resmini, L. (Eds.), Globalization and Regional Growth in Europe: Past Trends and Future Scenarios, Advances in Spatial Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 87–142.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biochemical Systematics and Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Mindfulness-based Therapy Shown To Reduce PTSD Symptoms In Veterans [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Transportation Security: TSA Has Made Progress in Implementing the Transportation Worker Identification Credential Program, but Challenges Remain (No. GAO-07-681T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Damiano, E.S., 2010. The effects of psychological stress on physical health over time (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ford Fessenden; Kate, Reporting, L.S.C., 2007. Long Island Aid Comes at Westchester’s Expense. New York Times 14WC5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Martinson, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Johnson and Jameson, 2009; Martinson, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johnson and Jameson, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Kawamichi et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiochemical Systematics and Ecology
AbbreviationBiochem. Syst. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0305-1978
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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