How to format your references using the Biochemical Systematics and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deschamps, J., 2004. Developmental biology. Hox genes in the limb: a play in two acts. Science 304, 1610–1611.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grandi, P., Palumbo, G.G.C., 2004. Jet and accretion-disk emission untangled in 3C 273. Science 306, 998–1002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, Y.-Y., Slotine, J.-J., Barabási, A.-L., 2011. Controllability of complex networks. Nature 473, 167–173.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Van Oost, K., Govers, G., Quine, T.A., Heckrath, G., 2004. Comment on “Managing soil carbon” (I). Science 305, 1567; author reply 1567.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carrega, P., 2010. Geographical Information and Climatology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Berretti, S., Thampi, S.M., Dasgupta, S. (Eds.), 2016. Intelligent Systems Technologies and Applications: Volume 2, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Guerreiro, E.P., Costa Neto, P.L. de O., Moreira Filho, U.M., 2014. Multidisciplinary Management: Model of Excellence in the Management Applied to Products and Services, in: Grabot, B., Vallespir, B., Gomes, S., Bouras, A., Kiritsis, D. (Eds.), Advances in Production Management Systems. Innovative and Knowledge-Based Production Management in a Global-Local World: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2014, Ajaccio, France, September 20-24, 2014, Proceedings, Part III, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 27–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biochemical Systematics and Ecology.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2017. Giant Pterosaurs May Have Been Munching On Human-Sized Dinosaurs [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Nanomanufacturing: Emergence and Implications for U.S. Competitiveness, the Environment, and Human Health (No. GAO-14-181SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Veru, P.T., 2009. The National-Dobro Guitar Company: How the resonator guitar survived the age of electric amplification (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2009. We’re All Finally Learning The True Price Of Football. New York Times B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Deschamps, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Deschamps, 2004; Grandi and Palumbo, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grandi and Palumbo, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Van Oost et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiochemical Systematics and Ecology
AbbreviationBiochem. Syst. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0305-1978
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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