How to format your references using the Biochemical Systematics and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kirchman, D., 2009. Journal club. A microbial ecologist learns something new from an old-fashioned study. Nature 459, 13.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abouheif, E., Wray, G.A., 2002. Evolution of the gene network underlying wing polyphenism in ants. Science 297, 249–252.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lineweaver, C.H., Fenner, Y., Gibson, B.K., 2004. The galactic habitable zone and the age distribution of complex life in the Milky Way. Science 303, 59–62.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Terry, I., Walter, G.H., Moore, C., Roemer, R., Hull, C., 2007. Odor-mediated push-pull pollination in cycads. Science 318, 70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Di Stefano, M., 2005. Distributed Data Management for Grid Computing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Aleven, V., Kay, J., Mostow, J. (Eds.), 2010. Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 10th International Conference, ITS 2010, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, June 14-18, 2010, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ekbom, B., 2010. Pests and Their Enemies in Spring Oilseed Rape in Europe and Challenges to Integrated Pest Management, in: Williams, I.H. (Ed.), Biocontrol-Based Integrated Management of Oilseed Rape Pests. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 151–165.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biochemical Systematics and Ecology.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. The Bacteria In Our Gut May Influence Our Response To Certain Cancer Treatments [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Comments on CRS Direct Loan Report (No. HRD-93-20R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trinooson, T.E., 2010. CFD investigations of a round jet with coil insert in crossflow (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Keith, S., Oudens, J., 2016. Half the Fun Is in Getting There. New York Times TR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kirchman, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Abouheif and Wray, 2002; Kirchman, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Abouheif and Wray, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Terry et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiochemical Systematics and Ecology
AbbreviationBiochem. Syst. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0305-1978
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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