How to format your references using the Biochemical Systematics and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stern, A., 2012. Commercial space flight is a game-changer. Nature 484, 417.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Connell, P.A., McKenna, G.B., 2005. Rheological measurements of the thermoviscoelastic response of ultrathin polymer films. Science 307, 1760–1763.
A journal article with 3 authors
Komatitsch, D., Ritsema, J., Tromp, J., 2002. The spectral-element method, Beowulf computing, and global seismology. Science 298, 1737–1742.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dugasani, S.R., Lee, N., Lee, J., Kim, B., Hwang, S.U., Lee, K.W., Kang, W.N., Park, S.H., 2013. Magnetic characteristics of copper ion-modified DNA thin films. Sci. Rep. 3, 1819.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morales, G., Kacher, C., 2015. Short Selling with the O’Neil Disciples. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Diamanti-Kandarakis, E., Farid, N.R. (Eds.), 2009. Diagnosis and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Scherm, H., Ngugi, H.K., Ojiambo, P.S., 2006. Trends in theoretical plant epidemiology, in: Cooke, B.M. (Ed.), Plant Disease Epidemiology: Facing Challenges of the 21st Century: Under the Aegis of an International Plant Disease Epidemiology Workshop Held at Landernau, France, 10–15th April, 2005. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 61–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biochemical Systematics and Ecology.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. ExxonMobil Shareholders Demand Action On Climate Change [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Federal Research: Preliminary Information on the Small Business Technology Transfer Program (No. RCED-96-19). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ademiluyi, C.A., 2010. Felony disenfranchisement and how it contributes to the Black electorate (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S., 2002. Downbeat of Feet Uptown in Harlem. New York Times F6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stern, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (O’Connell and McKenna, 2005; Stern, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Connell and McKenna, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Dugasani et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiochemical Systematics and Ecology
AbbreviationBiochem. Syst. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0305-1978
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles