How to format your references using the Ecological Complexity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Complexity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McMahon, R.J., 2003. Chemistry. Chemical reactions involving quantum tunneling. Science 299, 833–834.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lohmann, U., Lesins, G., 2002. Stronger constraints on the anthropogenic indirect aerosol effect. Science 298, 1012–1015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Șenbabaoğlu, Y., Michailidis, G., Li, J.Z., 2014. Critical limitations of consensus clustering in class discovery. Sci. Rep. 4, 6207.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pasqualucci, L., Neumeister, P., Goossens, T., Nanjangud, G., Chaganti, R.S., Küppers, R., Dalla-Favera, R., 2001. Hypermutation of multiple proto-oncogenes in B-cell diffuse large-cell lymphomas. Nature 412, 341–346.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Choudhry, M., Landuyt, G., 2010. The Future of Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Camanho, P.P., 2008. Mechanical Response of Composites, Computational Methods in Applied Sciences. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Sacco, R., 2009. Numerical Simulation of Thermal Oxidation Process in Semiconductor Devices Using Mixed—Hybrid Finite Elements, in: Carstensen, C., Wriggers, P. (Eds.), Mixed Finite Element Technologies, CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences. Springer, Vienna, pp. 107–130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Complexity.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. This Plane Will Take You Anywhere In The World In 4 Hours [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Urban Transportation: Issues Related to the South Corridor Study (No. RCED-93-195BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McElhoes, J.L., 2017. Spatial, Technological, and Functional Variability Among the Prehistoric Ceramics of the Southern California Coast (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., Alter, A., Chan, S., 2016. Bob Dylan Wins Nobel Prize, Redefining the Boundaries of Literature. New York Times A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McMahon, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Lohmann and Lesins, 2002; McMahon, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lohmann and Lesins, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Pasqualucci et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Complexity
AbbreviationEcol. Complex.
ISSN (print)1476-945X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Ecological Modelling

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