How to format your references using the Ecological Complexity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Complexity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Joughin, I., 2006. Climate change. Greenland rumbles louder as glaciers accelerate. Science 311, 1719–1720.
A journal article with 2 authors
Turner, D.B., Nelson, K.A., 2010. Coherent measurements of high-order electronic correlations in quantum wells. Nature 466, 1089–1092.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bieber, F.R., Brenner, C.H., Lazer, D., 2006. Human genetics. Finding criminals through DNA of their relatives. Science 312, 1315–1316.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Raftopoulou, M., Etienne-Manneville, S., Self, A., Nicholls, S., Hall, A., 2004. Regulation of cell migration by the C2 domain of the tumor suppressor PTEN. Science 303, 1179–1181.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rim, C.T., Mi, C., 2017. Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles and Mobile Devices. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Al-Khalili, J.S., Roeckl, E. (Eds.), 2009. The Euroschool Lectures on Physics with Exotic Beams, Vol. III, Lecture Notes in Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Scherer, G.G., 2013. Fuel Cell Types and Their Electrochemistry, in: Kreuer, K.-D. (Ed.), Fuel Cells: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 97–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Complexity.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017. Facebook Has a Mysterious Team Working On Tech That Sounds A Lot Like Mind Reading [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Small Business Administration: Planning for Loan Monitoring System Has Many Positive Features But Still Carries Implementation Challenges (No. T-AIMD-98-233). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zamudio, R., 2015. From community college to 4-year institutions: Latinas’ successful completion of STEM baccalaureate degrees (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Couturier, K., 2017. The Nine and a Half Months That Shook Fox News. New York Times B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Joughin, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Joughin, 2006; Turner and Nelson, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Turner and Nelson, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Raftopoulou et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Complexity
AbbreviationEcol. Complex.
ISSN (print)1476-945X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Ecological Modelling

Other styles