How to format your references using the Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Boer Y. 2010. Copenhagen shows we need caution in Cancún. Nature 468:477.
A journal article with 2 authors
Embley TM, Williams TA. 2015. Evolution: Steps on the road to eukaryotes. Nature 521:169–70.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shinkai K, Mohrs M, Locksley RM. 2002. Helper T cells regulate type-2 innate immunity in vivo. Nature 420:825–9.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Müller C, Maeso I, Wittbrodt J, Martínez-Morales JR. 2013. The medaka mutation tintachina sheds light on the evolution of V-ATPase B subunits in vertebrates. Sci Rep 3:3217.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shimizu H. 2017. Shimizu’s Dermatology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
An edited book
Kudenko D, Kazakov D, Alonso E, editors. 2005. Adaptive Agents and Multi-Agent Systems II: Adaptation and Multi-Agent Learning. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer
A chapter in an edited book
Edwards LM, McClintock JB. 2013. Promoting Hope Among Youth: Theory, Research, and Practice. In: Proctor C, Linley PA, editors. Research, Applications, and Interventions for Children and Adolescents: A Positive Psychology Perspective. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. pp 43–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosystems.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. How Humans Can Perceive Infrared As Visible Light. IFLScience. Last accessed 30/10/2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. NASA Aeronautics: Impact of Technology Transfer Activities Is Uncertain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eng R. 2014. Exploring Investors’ Decision Making Processes During the 2008 Financial Crisis Using Epstein’s Cognitive Experiential Self-Theory: A Multiple-case Study.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey M, Walsh MW. 2013. Chicago Sees Pension Crisis Drawing Near. New York Times:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Boer 2010).
This sentence cites two references (de Boer 2010; Embley and Williams 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Embley and Williams 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Müller and others 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosystems
ISSN (print)1432-9840
ISSN (online)1435-0629
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Environmental Chemistry

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