How to format your references using the Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triendl R. 2001. Staffing shortage threatens Japan’s structural genomics. Nature 410:724.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krishnan R, Lindquist SL. 2005. Structural insights into a yeast prion illuminate nucleation and strain diversity. Nature 435:765–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paggi M, Pohrt R, Popov VL. 2014. Partial-slip frictional response of rough surfaces. Sci Rep 4:5178.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Kim S, Malinverni JC, Sliz P, Silhavy TJ, Harrison SC, Kahne D. 2007. Structure and function of an essential component of the outer membrane protein assembly machine. Science 317:961–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kothari V. 2008. Credit Derivatives and Structured Credit Trading. 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Gaine SP, Naeije R, Peacock AJ, editors. 2014. The Right Heart. London: Springer
A chapter in an edited book
Pagliari DJ, Poncino M, Macii E. 2016. Energy-Efficient Digital Processing via Approximate Computing. In: Bombieri N, Poncino M, Pravadelli G, editors. Smart Systems Integration and Simulation. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp 55–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosystems.

Blog post
Davis J. 2017. Alzheimer’s Drug Could Be Used To Naturally Regenerate Teeth. IFLScience. Last accessed 30/10/2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Media Ownership: FCC Should Review the Effects of Broadcaster Agreements on Its Media Policy Goals. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vargo G. 2010. Social protest and the novel: Chartism, the radical press, and early Victorian fiction.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. 2016. Affordability in a Bucolic Setting. New York Times:RE17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Triendl 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Triendl 2001; Krishnan and Lindquist 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krishnan and Lindquist 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim and others 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosystems
ISSN (print)1432-9840
ISSN (online)1435-0629
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Environmental Chemistry

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