How to format your references using the Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
May RM. 2004. Uses and abuses of mathematics in biology. Science 303:790–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheppard SS, Jewitt DC. 2003. An abundant population of small irregular satellites around Jupiter. Nature 423:261–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lindström NO, Hohenstein P, Davies JA. 2013. Nephrons require Rho-kinase for proximal-distal polarity development. Sci Rep 3:2692.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Jager M, Murienne J, Clabaut C, Deutsch J, Le Guyader H, Manuel M. 2006. Homology of arthropod anterior appendages revealed by Hox gene expression in a sea spider. Nature 441:506–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eggleston B. 2008. The ICE Conditions of Contract: Seventh Edition. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd
An edited book
Pitha PM, editor. 2007. Interferon: The 50th Anniversary. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer
A chapter in an edited book
Alves-Prado HF, Gomes E, Da Silva R. 2007. Purification and Characterization of a Cyclomaltodextrin Glucanotransferase From Paenibacillus campinasensis Strain H69-3. In: Mielenz JR, Klasson KT, Adney WS, McMillan JD, editors. Applied Biochemistry and Biotecnology: The Twenty-Eighth Symposium Proceedings of the Twenty-Eight Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals Held April 30–May 3, 2006, in Nashville, Tennessee. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. pp 41–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosystems.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2016. The Milky Way’s Heart May Have Stopped Forming Stars. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/space/the-milky-ways-heart-may-have-stopped-forming-stars/. Last accessed 30/10/2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Commercial Motor Carriers: DOT Is Shifting to Performance-Based Standards to Assess Whether Carriers Operate Safely. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bernstine JT. 2015. Experiences of Students Transferring from Community and Technical Colleges to a Private Nonprofit University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Clarke J. 2017. Respites From Solitude of an Ocean Voyage. New York Times:B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (May 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Sheppard and Jewitt 2003; May 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sheppard and Jewitt 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Jager and others 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosystems
AbbreviationEcosystems
ISSN (print)1432-9840
ISSN (online)1435-0629
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Ecology
Environmental Chemistry

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