How to format your references using the Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blandford RD. 2015. A century of general relativity: astrophysics and cosmology. Science 347:1103–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cook-Deegan RM, McCormack SJ. 2001. Intellectual property. Patents, secrecy, and DNA. Science 293:217.
A journal article with 3 authors
Winkler W, Nahvi A, Breaker RR. 2002. Thiamine derivatives bind messenger RNAs directly to regulate bacterial gene expression. Nature 419:952–6.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Gibson DG, Glass JI, Lartigue C, Noskov VN, Chuang R-Y, Algire MA, Benders GA, Montague MG, Ma L, Moodie MM, Merryman C, Vashee S, Krishnakumar R, Assad-Garcia N, Andrews-Pfannkoch C, Denisova EA, Young L, Qi Z-Q, Segall-Shapiro TH, Calvey CH, Parmar PP, Hutchison CA 3rd, Smith HO, Venter JC. 2010. Creation of a bacterial cell controlled by a chemically synthesized genome. Science 329:52–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lowman M. 2017. A Practical Guide to Analytics for Governments. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Carrara S, editor. 2011. Nano-Bio-Sensing. New York, NY: Springer
A chapter in an edited book
Frelin A, Grannäs J. 2014. Navigating Middle Ground. In: Zandvliet D, Brok PD, Mainhard T, Tartwijk J van, editors. Interpersonal Relationships in Education: From Theory to Practice. Rotterdam: SensePublishers. pp 57–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosystems.

Blog post
Andrews R. 2017. Babies Have An Innate Sense Of Heroic Justice. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/brain/babies-innate-sense-heroic-justice/. Last accessed 30/10/2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Space Acquisitions: DOD Needs Additional Knowledge as it Embarks on a New Approach for Transformational Satellite Communications System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Safarian Bahri P. 2017. Erosion Rate Prediction Model for Levee-Floodwall Overtopping Applications in Fine-Grained Soils.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. 2002. Dreams Taste Bittersweet As a Small Store Is Sold. New York Times:145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blandford 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cook-Deegan and McCormack 2001; Blandford 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cook-Deegan and McCormack 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Gibson and others 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosystems
AbbreviationEcosystems
ISSN (print)1432-9840
ISSN (online)1435-0629
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Ecology
Environmental Chemistry

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