How to format your references using the Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Graber C. 2011. Aetiology: The path to disease. Nature 480:S54-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mery F, Kawecki TJ. 2005. A cost of long-term memory in Drosophila. Science 308:1148.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nagashima K, Krot AN, Yurimoto H. 2004. Stardust silicates from primitive meteorites. Nature 428:921–4.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Bozzini B, Amati M, Gregoratti L, Kiskinova M. 2013. In-situ photoelectron microspectroscopy and imaging of electrochemical processes at the electrodes of a self-driven cell. Sci Rep 3:2848.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wells AR, Chiang K. 2017. Monetizing Your Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hannibal J. 2006. Neuronal Input Pathways to the Brain’s Biological Clock and their Functional Significance. (Fahrenkrug J, editor.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer
A chapter in an edited book
Koski E. 2011. Clinical Laboratory Data for Biosurveillance. In: Castillo-Chavez C, Chen H, Lober WB, Thurmond M, Zeng D, editors. Infectious Disease Informatics and Biosurveillance: Research, Systems and Case Studies. Integrated Series in Information Systems. Boston, MA: Springer US. pp 67–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosystems.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. A New Way To Test Your ‘Biological’ Age. IFLScience. Last accessed 30/10/2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1981. The Federal Interest in Legislative-Administrative Relations in the States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gunderson CA. 2017. The Moderating Effect of Type of Target on the Relationship between Collective Rumination and Displaced Aggression.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. 2016. Paralympics; Iranian Cyclist Dies After Crash at Rio Games. New York Times:SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Graber 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Mery and Kawecki 2005; Graber 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mery and Kawecki 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Bozzini and others 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosystems
ISSN (print)1432-9840
ISSN (online)1435-0629
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Environmental Chemistry

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