How to format your references using the Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chandrashekar, CM. Two-component Dirac-like Hamiltonian for generating quantum walk on one-, two- and three-dimensional lattices. Scientific reports 3, 2829 (2013).
A journal article with 2 authors
Kluwe, C & Ellington, AD. Evolution. RNA GPS. Science (New York, N.Y.) 330, 330–331 (2010).
A journal article with 3 authors
Goldman, YE,Franzini-Armstrong, C,& Armstrong, CM. Andrew Fielding Huxley (1917-2012). Nature 486, 474 (2012).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Bargheer, M et al. Coherent atomic motions in a nanostructure studied by femtosecond X-ray diffraction. Science (New York, N.Y.) 306, 1771–1773 (2004).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kanel, GC. Pathology Of Liver Diseases (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2017).
An edited book
European Instructional Lectures: Volume 15, 2015, 16th EFORT Congress, Prague, Czech Republic 15, (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015).
A chapter in an edited book
Fecher, H,Leucker, M,& Wolf, V. in Model Checking Software: 13th International SPIN Workshop, Vienna, Austria, March 30 - April 1, 2006. Proceedings (ed. Valmari, A.) 71–88 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solutions.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. Watch Live As Solar Impulse Ends Its Sun-Powered Flight Around The World. IFLScience [online] (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Responses To Questions For The Record; September 2008 Hearing On The Next Generation Air Transportation System: Status And Issues (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sheldon, A. The impact of power restoration and narcissism on aggression. (California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crouse, K. His Term, Forever: Amen. New York Times B11 (2015).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSolutions
ISSN (print)2154-0896
ISSN (online)2154-0926

Other styles