How to format your references using the Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt, T. NASA ponders termination of gamma-ray observatory. Nature 403, 232 (2000).
A journal article with 2 authors
Weaver, P & Johnson, D. Biodiversity: Think big for marine conservation. Nature 483, 399 (2012).
A journal article with 3 authors
Woodroffe, R,Hedges, S,& Durant, SM. Ecology. To fence or not to fence. Science (New York, N.Y.) 344, 46–48 (2014).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Komiyama, S,Astafiev, O,Antonov, V, V,Kutsuwa, T,& Hirai, H. A single-photon detector in the far-infrared range. Nature 403, 405–407 (2000).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li, P & Marrongelle, K. Having Success With NSF (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012).
An edited book
Motivation, Leadership And Curriculum Design: Engaging The Net Generation And 21st Century Learners (Springer, Singapore, 2015).
A chapter in an edited book
Puviani, M,Cabri, G,Capodieci, N,& Leonardi, L. in Agents and Artificial Intelligence: 7th International Conference, ICAART 2015, Lisbon, Portugal, January 10-12, 2015, Revised Selected Papers (eds. Duval, B., van den Herik, J., Loiseau, S. & Filipe, J.) 58–75 (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solutions.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Atlantropa: The Colossal 1920s Plan To Dam The Mediterranean And Create A Supercontinent. IFLScience [online] (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review Of Selected Areas Of Financial And Property Administration Of Federal City College (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1971).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harper, NR. The Relationship between Worry Symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and True Memory, False Memory, and Metamemory. (Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Slotnik, DE. Zvonko Busic, 67, Croatian Hijacker. New York Times B15 (2013).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSolutions
ISSN (print)2154-0896
ISSN (online)2154-0926

Other styles