How to format your references using the Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tsai, JW. The M.D.-Ph.D. double agent. Science (New York, N.Y.) 350, 1434 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
John, B & Hunter, CA. Immunology. Neutrophil soldiers or Trojan Horses? Science (New York, N.Y.) 321, 917–918 (2008).
A journal article with 3 authors
Beddington, JR,Agnew, DJ,& Clark, CW. Current problems in the management of marine fisheries. Science (New York, N.Y.) 316, 1713–1716 (2007).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Schiller, J,Major, G,Koester, HJ,& Schiller, Y. NMDA spikes in basal dendrites of cortical pyramidal neurons. Nature 404, 285–289 (2000).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robertson, B,Vignaux, GA,& Berger, CEH. Interpreting Evidence (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016).
An edited book
Leung, T. Pro Visual Studio LightSwitch 2011 Development (Apress, Berkeley, CA, 2012).
A chapter in an edited book
Ye, D,Mei, L,& Zhang, Y. in Computing and Combinatorics: 21st International Conference, COCOON 2015, Beijing, China, August 4-6, 2015, Proceedings (eds. Xu, D., Du, D. & Du, D.) 45–56 (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solutions.

Blog post
Andrew, D. Why A Lack Of Sleep Makes Us Depressed … And What We Can Do About It. IFLScience [online] (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Communications Commission: Competitive Bidding Procedures (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fay, JE. California employer perspectives on older working adults specific to the Affordable Care Act health insurance mandate. (California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. Stony Brook Medical Center Names Chief Executive. New York Times 14LI2 (2006).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSolutions
ISSN (print)2154-0896
ISSN (online)2154-0926

Other styles