How to format your references using the Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hapgood, M. Astrophysics: Prepare for the coming space weather storm. Nature 484, 311–313 (2012).
A journal article with 2 authors
Boehr, DD & Wright, PE. Biochemistry. How do proteins interact? Science (New York, N.Y.) 320, 1429–1430 (2008).
A journal article with 3 authors
Piana, S,Reyhani, M,& Gale, JD. Simulating micrometre-scale crystal growth from solution. Nature 438, 70–73 (2005).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Lemma, V et al. A disorder-to-order structural transition in the COOH-tail of Fz4 determines misfolding of the L501fsX533-Fz4 mutant. Scientific reports 3, 2659 (2013).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Noar, J. Interceptive Orthodontics (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2014).
An edited book
Ulrich Beck: Pioneer In Cosmopolitan Sociology And Risk Society 18, (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014).
A chapter in an edited book
Dührkop, K,Ludwig, M,Meusel, M,& Böcker, S. in Algorithms in Bioinformatics: 13th International Workshop, WABI 2013, Sophia Antipolis, France, September 2-4, 2013. Proceedings (eds. Darling, A. & Stoye, J.) 45–58 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solutions.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Immunotherapy Drugs Could Herald New Era In Cancer Treatment. IFLScience [online] (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Business Systems Modernization: Air Force Needs To Fully Define Policies And Procedures For Institutionally Managing Investments (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bennett, JL. An examination of therapeutic recreation programs for veterans with combat-related disabilities and their families. (Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2013).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt, MS. Officials Cancel Plans to Build New Headquarters for the F.B.I. New York Times A16 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSolutions
ISSN (print)2154-0896
ISSN (online)2154-0926

Other styles