How to format your references using the Solutions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solutions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burchard, EG. Medical research: Missing patients. Nature 513, 301–302 (2014).
A journal article with 2 authors
Pienitz, R & Vincent, WF. Effect of climate change relative to ozone depletion on UV exposure in subarctic lakes. Nature 404, 484–487 (2000).
A journal article with 3 authors
Wade, JT,Hall, DB,& Struhl, K. The transcription factor Ifh1 is a key regulator of yeast ribosomal protein genes. Nature 432, 1054–1058 (2004).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Schulz, KG et al. Effect of trace metal availability on coccolithophorid calcification. Nature 430, 673–676 (2004).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Böhm, M. Symmetrien In Festkörpern (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2005).
An edited book
Tomar, V. Multiscale Characterization Of Biological Systems: Spectroscopy And Modeling (Springer, New York, NY, 2015).
A chapter in an edited book
Angiani, G et al. in AI*IA 2016 Advances in Artificial Intelligence: XVth International Conference of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence, Genova, Italy, November 29 – December 1, 2016, Proceedings (eds. Adorni, G., Cagnoni, S., Gori, M. & Maratea, M.) 51–64 (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solutions.

Blog post
Fang, J. Dung Beetles Orient By Taking Snapshots Of Celestial Scenery. IFLScience [online] (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Surface Transportation: The Department Of Transportation Proposes Significant Changes To Its Automated Highway System Program (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Builes, AJ. Inferring Function: A Study of Three Prehistoric Structures in El Pital, Puerto López, Manabí, Ecuador. (Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, 2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Hostesses as Recruiters? How Far Is Too Far? New York Times B11 (2009).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSolutions
ISSN (print)2154-0896
ISSN (online)2154-0926

Other styles