How to format your references using the Solid State Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid State Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Sloboda, Science and Music: the ear of the beholder, Nature. 454 (2008) 32–33.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.R. Schoch, H.-D. Sues, A Middle Triassic stem-turtle and the evolution of the turtle body plan, Nature. 523 (2015) 584–587.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Hillebrandt, K.J. Friston, S.-J. Blakemore, Effective connectivity during animacy perception--dynamic causal modelling of Human Connectome Project data, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6240.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L.F. Lundegaard, G. Weck, M.I. McMahon, S. Desgreniers, P. Loubeyre, Observation of an O8 molecular lattice in the epsilon phase of solid oxygen, Nature. 443 (2006) 201–204.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
I.R. Brenner, How to Survive a Medical Malpractice Lawsuit, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, West Sussex, UK, 2010.
An edited book
D. Rios Insua, S. French, eds., e-Democracy: A Group Decision and Negotiation Perspective, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Jiang, J.S. Gero, C.-C. Yen, Exploring Designing Styles Using a Problem–Solution Division, in: J.S. Gero (Ed.), Design Computing and Cognition ’12, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014: pp. 79–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid State Sciences.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, Brazilian Peppertree Helps Fight Off Antibiotic-Resistant Superbugs, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA Procurement: Challenges Remain in Implementing Improvement Reforms, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.M. Thomas, Perceptions of educational leaders’ efficacy and leadership capacity upon preliminary administrative credential completion at California State University, Long Beach, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
M. Billard, Like Shopbop, Only It’s in 3-D, New York Times. (2010) E9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid State Sciences
AbbreviationSolid State Sci.
ISSN (print)1293-2558
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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