How to format your references using the Solid State Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid State Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Mackinnon, Structural biology. Voltage sensor meets lipid membrane, Science. 306 (2004) 1304–1305.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.B. Ramocki, H.Y. Zoghbi, Failure of neuronal homeostasis results in common neuropsychiatric phenotypes, Nature. 455 (2008) 912–918.
A journal article with 3 authors
H.S. Engler, K.C. Spencer, L.E. Gilbert, Preventing cyanide release from leaves, Nature. 406 (2000) 144–145.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F.W. Krainer, C. Gmeiner, L. Neutsch, M. Windwarder, R. Pletzenauer, C. Herwig, F. Altmann, A. Glieder, O. Spadiut, Knockout of an endogenous mannosyltransferase increases the homogeneity of glycoproteins produced in Pichia pastoris, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3279.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Wen, P. Huang, Principles of Tribology, John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, Singapore, 2011.
An edited book
S. Chakraborty, Computational Musicology in Hindustani Music, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Ogura, H. Hiraga, T. Ishii, T. Ozaki, Y. Nishida, H. Morioka, T. Hiruma, T. Ueda, N. Araki, N. Naka, H. Kawano, A. Kawai, Outcome of Treatment for Osteosarcoma of the Extremities Over the Last 20 Years: Report from 11 Referral Centers in Japan, in: T. Ueda, A. Kawai (Eds.), Osteosarcoma, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2016: pp. 45–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid State Sciences.

Blog post
T. Hale, This Is Why You Should Never Wash Your Contact Lenses With Tap Water, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Administration of Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1969.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.A. Mathus, The Relationship between Teacher Evaluation Ratings and Student Achievement in a Rural, Midwest School District, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Sisario, Pearl Jam, Shakur Among Rock Nominees, New York Times. (2016) C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid State Sciences
AbbreviationSolid State Sci.
ISSN (print)1293-2558
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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