How to format your references using the Solid State Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid State Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O. Morton, PARTICLE PHYSICS: The Final Tally Leaves LEP a Probable Loser, Science. 290 (2000) 1274a.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.T. Kiers, S.A. West, Evolutionary biology. Evolving new organisms via symbiosis, Science. 348 (2015) 392–394.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.L. Jeffrey, J.A. Terrett, D.W.C. MacMillan, O-H hydrogen bonding promotes H-atom transfer from α C-H bonds for C-alkylation of alcohols, Science. 349 (2015) 1532–1536.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H.F. Levison, A. Morbidelli, L. Dones, R. Jedicke, P.A. Wiegert, W.F. Bottke Jr, The mass disruption of Oort cloud comets, Science. 296 (2002) 2212–2215.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M.C. McMaster, Buying and Selling Laboratory Instruments, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
M. Lehto, P. Neittaanmäki, eds., Cyber Security: Analytics, Technology and Automation, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Kołaczek, Multiagent Security Evaluation Framework for Service Oriented Architecture Systems, in: J.D. Velásquez, S.A. Ríos, R.J. Howlett, L.C. Jain (Eds.), Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 13th International Conference, KES 2009, Santiago, Chile, September 28-30, 2009, Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 30–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid State Sciences.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, The Strongest Evidence That Black Holes Are Not Completely Black, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, New Ways of Preparing Data for Computers Could Save Money and Time and Reduce Errors, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.J. McKinley, Exploring the efficiency and effectiveness of teacher selection tools: The effects on the total group with a focus on the experience sub-groups, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
R. Nuila, Medical Misfits, New York Times. (2017) SR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid State Sciences
AbbreviationSolid State Sci.
ISSN (print)1293-2558
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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