How to format your references using the Population and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Population and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Byatt, A. S. (2005). Fiction informed by science. Nature, 434(7031), 294–297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wimmer, G. E., & Shohamy, D. (2012). Preference by association: how memory mechanisms in the hippocampus bias decisions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6104), 270–273.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aharonian, F. A., Bogovalov, S. V., & Khangulyan, D. (2012). Abrupt acceleration of a “cold” ultrarelativistic wind from the Crab pulsar. Nature, 482(7386), 507–509.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mainland, J. D., Bremner, E. A., Young, N., Johnson, B. N., Khan, R. M., Bensafi, M., & Sobel, N. (2002). Olfactory plasticity: one nostril knows what the other learns. Nature, 419(6909), 802.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (1995). Guidelines for Process Safety Documentation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jaouen, G., & Metzler-Nolte, N. (Eds.). (2010). Medicinal Organometallic Chemistry (Vol. 32). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lombardi, L. R., Kreys, E., Gerry, S., & Boullata, J. I. (2010). Nutrition in the Age of Polypharmacy. In A. Bendich & R. J. Deckelbaum (Eds.), Preventive Nutrition: The Comprehensive Guide for Health Professionals (pp. 79–123). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Population and Environment.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 31). Why Do Spiders Curl Up When They Die? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Federal Railroad Administration: Railroad Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing Program--Revisions (No. OGC-00-42). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sharp, L. M. (2009). Creative nonfiction illuminated: Cross-disciplinary spotlights (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Blinder, A., Baker, A. L., & David Goodman, J. (2014, December 25). Tracing Gun Used to Kill 2 Officers, Officials Wind Up in a Familiar Spot. New York Times, p. A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Byatt 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Byatt 2005; Wimmer and Shohamy 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wimmer and Shohamy 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Mainland et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePopulation and Environment
AbbreviationPopul. Environ.
ISSN (print)0199-0039
ISSN (online)1573-7810
ScopeEnvironmental Science (miscellaneous)

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