How to format your references using the Population and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Population and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). The best years of our lives. Nature, 430(6995), 121.
A journal article with 2 authors
Butte, N. F., & Ellis, K. J. (2003). Comment on “Obesity and the environment: where do we go from here?” Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5633), 598; author reply 598.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aviezer, H., Trope, Y., & Todorov, A. (2012). Body cues, not facial expressions, discriminate between intense positive and negative emotions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6111), 1225–1229.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Curé, C., Antunes, R., Alves, A. C., Visser, F., Kvadsheim, P. H., & Miller, P. J. O. (2013). Responses of male sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) to killer whale sounds: implications for anti-predator strategies. Scientific reports, 3, 1579.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perez, A. (2013). Voice Over LTE. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Slippers, B., de Groot, P., & Wingfield, M. J. (Eds.). (2012). The Sirex Woodwasp and its Fungal Symbiont: Research and Management of a Worldwide Invasive Pest. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Gyurkó, L. G., & Lyons, T. J. (2011). Efficient and Practical Implementations of Cubature on Wiener Space. In D. Crisan (Ed.), Stochastic Analysis 2010 (pp. 73–111). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Population and Environment.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, March 30). How Chemistry Can Make your Ironing Easier. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). University Funding: Federal Funding Mechanisms in Support of University Research (No. RCED-86-53). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lai, J.-P. (2008). Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome Ten (PTEN) As A Molecular Target in Lung Epithelial Wound Repair and Protection (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2017, June 15). Twilight of the Guru. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Butte and Ellis 2003; Smaglik 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Butte and Ellis 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Curé et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePopulation and Environment
AbbreviationPopul. Environ.
ISSN (print)0199-0039
ISSN (online)1573-7810
ScopeEnvironmental Science (miscellaneous)

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