How to format your references using the Population and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Population and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Toulouse, G. (2000). Community groups could show Unesco the way. Nature, 405(6785), 394.
A journal article with 2 authors
Podsiadlowski, P., & Justham, S. (2006). Astronomy. Big bang points to stellar mix-up. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5805), 1551–1552.
A journal article with 3 authors
Freitas, R., Zhang, G., & Cohn, M. J. (2006). Evidence that mechanisms of fin development evolved in the midline of early vertebrates. Nature, 442(7106), 1033–1037.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bhoo, S. H., Davis, S. J., Walker, J., Karniol, B., & Vierstra, R. D. (2001). Bacteriophytochromes are photochromic histidine kinases using a biliverdin chromophore. Nature, 414(6865), 776–779.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Narang, R. K. (2013). Inside the Black Box. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
P. Hettiaratchy, S., Griffiths, M., Ali, F., & Simmons, J. (Eds.). (2012). Plastic Surgery: A Problem Based Approach. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Auwerx, J. (2016). Belgium. In B. Kilpatrick, P. Kobel, & P. Këllezi (Eds.), Compatibility of Transactional Resolutions of Antitrust Proceedings with Due Process and Fundamental Rights & Online Exhaustion of IP Rights (pp. 103–134). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Population and Environment.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 6). Spiders Create Graphene-Infused Super Webs. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). The Job Training Partnership Act: An Analysis of Support Cost Limits and Participant Characteristics (No. HRD-86-16). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carroll, W. E. (2017). Leadership and emotional intelligence: Ability-based and mixed models of emotional intelligence as predictors of leadership performance across manager levels (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O. (2016, May 6). When Castro Put Out the Welcome Mat for Americans in 1959. New York Times, p. C30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Toulouse 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Podsiadlowski and Justham 2006; Toulouse 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Podsiadlowski and Justham 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Bhoo et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePopulation and Environment
AbbreviationPopul. Environ.
ISSN (print)0199-0039
ISSN (online)1573-7810
ScopeEnvironmental Science (miscellaneous)

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