How to format your references using the Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mace GM. Ecology. Whose conservation? Science 2014;345:1558–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maroteaux M, Mameli M. Neuroscience. Synaptic switch and social status. Science 2011;334:608–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fujisawa K, Wrana JL, Culotti JG. The slit receptor EVA-1 coactivates a SAX-3/Robo mediated guidance signal in C. elegans. Science 2007;317:1934–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zwierlein MW, Schirotzek A, Schunck CH, Ketterle W. Fermionic superfluidity with imbalanced spin populations. Science 2006;311:492–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pasternak JJ. An Introduction to Human Molecular Genetics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Bindereif A, editor. RNA Metabolism in Trypanosomes. vol. 28. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Takahashi Y, Ariga D, Fan Q, Kashiwabara T. Systematics of Distributions of Various Elements Between Ferromanganese Oxides and Seawater from Natural Observation, Thermodynamics, and Structures. In: Ishibashi J-I, Okino K, Sunamura M, editors. Subseafloor Biosphere Linked to Hydrothermal Systems: TAIGA Concept, Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015, p. 39–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Hale T. Washing Your Clothes Can Release Up To 700,000 Microplastic Particles Into The Environment. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: Free Flight Tools Show Promise, but Implementation Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Knehans A. As you like it: The road to design. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Keeping It Real, the TV Version. New York Times 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
AbbreviationClin. Res. Hepatol. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)2210-7401

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