How to format your references using the Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tommassen J. Biochemistry. Getting into and through the outer membrane. Science 2007;317:903–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gershenwald JE, Fidler IJ. Cancer. Targeting lymphatic metastasis. Science 2002;296:1811–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jonsson GE, Miljkovic V, Dmitriev A. Nanoplasmon-enabled macroscopic thermal management. Sci Rep 2014;4:5111.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Frank RAW, Titman CM, Pratap JV, Luisi BF, Perham RN. A molecular switch and proton wire synchronize the active sites in thiamine enzymes. Science 2004;306:872–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kesidis G. An Introduction to Communication Network Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Franco J. Reliability of High Mobility SiGe Channel MOSFETs for Future CMOS Applications. vol. 47. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Sokolova MV, Fernández Caballero A. Data and Results. In: Fernández Caballero A, editor. Decision Making in Complex Systems: The DeciMaS Agent-based Interdisciplinary Framework Approach, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 139–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Andrews R. Germany Just Produced So Much Renewable Energy That It Had To Pay People To Use It. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highlights of a Forum: 3D Printing: Opportunities, Challenges, and Policy Implications of Additive Manufacturing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ortega R. Effects of cultural and linguistic differences in breast cancer screening behaviors among elderly Latina women. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Again: It’s Hillary Rodham Clinton. Got That? New York Times 1993:133.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
AbbreviationClin. Res. Hepatol. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)2210-7401

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