How to format your references using the Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alonzo SH. Evolution. An unexpected cost of sex. Science 2015;347:948–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roberts RG, Sutikna T. Michael John Morwood (1950-2013). Nature 2013;500:401.
A journal article with 3 authors
Viculis LM, Mack JJ, Kaner RB. A chemical route to carbon nanoscrolls. Science 2003;299:1361.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cam HP, Noma K-I, Ebina H, Levin HL, Grewal SIS. Host genome surveillance for retrotransposons by transposon-derived proteins. Nature 2008;451:431–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Richards SA, Hollerton JC. Essential Practical NMR for Organic Chemistry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Barceló D, editor. Fuel Oxygenates. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Derrick J, Boiten EA. Refinement in Z. In: Boiten EA, editor. Refinement in Z and Object-Z: Foundations and Advanced Applications, London: Springer; 2014, p. 93–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Antimicrobial CRISPR-Cas systems may be better weapons against bacteria Than Antibiotics. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Competition: Cargo Airline Has Enhanced Competition in Hawaii but Faces an Uncertain Future. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ge Z. Link performance analysis of disaster monitoring system. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Exclusive Club? Not Anymore. New York Times 2010:B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
AbbreviationClin. Res. Hepatol. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)2210-7401

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