How to format your references using the Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kreeger K. Training programmes with vision. Nature 2002;417:5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aratyn-Schaus Y, Gardel ML. Biophysics. Clutch dynamics. Science 2008;322:1646–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Komarneni S, Kozai N, Paulus WJ. Environment. Superselective clay for radium uptake. Nature 2001;410:771.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Niu H, Chung W-H, Zhu Z, Kwon Y, Zhao W, Chi P, et al. Mechanism of the ATP-dependent DNA end-resection machinery from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature 2010;467:108–11.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Laycock J, Meeran K. Integrated Endocrinology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Bian F, Xie Y, editors. Geo-Informatics in Resource Management and Sustainable Ecosystem: Second International Conference, GRMSE 2014, Ypsilanti, MI, USA, October 3-5, 2014. Proceedings. vol. 482. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Izmailov I, Poizner B, Romanov I, Smolskiy S. Optical Vortices in Ring and Non-ring Interferometers and a Model of the Digital Communication System. In: Poizner B, Romanov I, Smolskiy S, editors. Cryptology Transmitted Message Protection: From Deterministic Chaos up to Optical Vortices, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 259–332.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Andrew D. How Our Autistic Ancestors Played An Important Role In Human Evolution. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Review of DOD Programs Funded With R&D Appropriations]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Van Gilder BJ. American students’ communication abroad: Factors promoting and inhibiting interactions with host nationals. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Maryland and Princeton Gain Final With Routs. New York Times 2000:D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
AbbreviationClin. Res. Hepatol. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)2210-7401

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