How to format your references using the Solid State Ionics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid State Ionics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Zhang, China must act decisively to eradicate the ivory trade, Nature. 527 (2015) 135.
A journal article with 2 authors
P.G. Debenedetti, F.H. Stillinger, Supercooled liquids and the glass transition, Nature. 410 (2001) 259–267.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Willbold, T. Elliott, S. Moorbath, The tungsten isotopic composition of the Earth’s mantle before the terminal bombardment, Nature. 477 (2011) 195–198.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Högbom, P. Stenmark, N. Voevodskaya, G. McClarty, A. Gräslund, P. Nordlund, The radical site in chlamydial ribonucleotide reductase defines a new R2 subclass, Science. 305 (2004) 245–248.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M.J. Flynn, W. Luk, Computer System Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Y.K. Eddie Ng, Compressor Instability with Integral Methods, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Welk, Amoeba Techniques for Shape and Texture Analysis, in: M. Breuß, A. Bruckstein, P. Maragos, S. Wuhrer (Eds.), Perspectives in Shape Analysis, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 73–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid State Ionics.

Blog post
J. Fang, Ancient Artwork Depicts Collapse of Egypt’s Animal Communities, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Interstate Commerce Commission: Key Issues Need to Be Addressed in Determining Future of ICC’s Regulatory Functions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Shelton-Quinn, Increasing positive peer reporting and on -task behavior using a peer monitoring interdependent group contingency program with public posting, Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, J. Rutenberg, Pelley Said to Be Leaving Anchor Post With CBS News, New York Times. (2017) B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid State Ionics
AbbreviationSolid State Ion.
ISSN (print)0167-2738
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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