How to format your references using the Solid State Ionics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid State Ionics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Nathan, Immunology. Catalytic antibody bridges innate and adaptive immunity, Science. 298 (2002) 2143–2144.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Wayland, X. Fu, Chemistry. Building molecules with carbon monoxide reductive coupling, Science. 311 (2006) 790–791.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.H. Johnson, M. Egli, P.L. Stewart, Structural insights into a circadian oscillator, Science. 322 (2008) 697–701.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
W.-K. Yu, X.-F. Liu, X.-R. Yao, C. Wang, Y. Zhai, G.-J. Zhai, Complementary compressive imaging for the telescopic system, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5834.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K. Chen, Performance Evaluation by Simulation and Analysis with Applications to Computer Networks, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
Z. Zalevsky, ed., Super-Resolved Imaging: Geometrical and Diffraction Approaches, 1st ed., Springer, New York, NY, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
N.A. Lever, M. Lindsey, L. O’Brennan, M.D. Weist, Preservice Training for School Mental Health Clinicians, in: M.D. Weist, N.A. Lever, C.P. Bradshaw, J.S. Owens (Eds.), Handbook of School Mental Health: Research, Training, Practice, and Policy, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2014: pp. 45–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid State Ionics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, How Low-Tech Farming Innovations Can Make African Farmers Climate-Resilient, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Impact of Funding on Materials R&D Programs in the Departments of Energy and Commerce, and NASA Since FY 1980, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.M. Nellenbach, Contributions of oral language, problem-solving, and reading attitudes to young adolescents’ silent reading comprehension, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G.H. Colt, Sibling Rivalry: One Long Food Fight, New York Times. (2012) SR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid State Ionics
AbbreviationSolid State Ion.
ISSN (print)0167-2738
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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