How to format your references using the Solid State Ionics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid State Ionics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, Building cooperation New York, Nature. 419 (2002) 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Yadlapalli, Y.M. Yamashita, Chromosome-specific nonrandom sister chromatid segregation during stem-cell division, Nature. 498 (2013) 251–254.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Keppler, M. Wiedenbeck, S.S. Shcheka, Carbon solubility in olivine and the mode of carbon storage in the Earth’s mantle, Nature. 424 (2003) 414–416.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Tang, Y. Xu, A.R.W. McKellar, W. Jäger, Quantum solvation of carbonyl sulfide with helium atoms, Science. 297 (2002) 2030–2033.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Pouly, J. Kohlas, Generic Inference, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
A. Foster, Scanning Probe Microscopy: Atomic Scale Engineering by Forces and Currents, Springer, New York, NY, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
J.B. Guerra, A.C. Barton, C. Brecklin, E. Tan, H. Kang, Kay’s coat of many Colors, in: M. Varelas (Ed.), Identity Construction and Science Education Research: Learning, Teaching, and Being in Multiple Contexts, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2012: pp. 43–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid State Ionics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Orange Is The New Black Gold: How Peel Could Replace Crude Oil In Plastics, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Kennedy Space Center: Decision on Photographic Requirements Appears Justified, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
V.M. Richardson, In vitro thyroid hormone metabolism: Effects of nuclear receptor activation on the metabolic profiles of thyroxine in rat and human hepatocytes, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.M. Grynbaum, D. Victor, Fox News Retracts Theory On Killing of D.N.C. Aide, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid State Ionics
AbbreviationSolid State Ion.
ISSN (print)0167-2738
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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