How to format your references using the Solid State Ionics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid State Ionics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N.J. Conard, A female figurine from the basal Aurignacian of Hohle Fels Cave in southwestern Germany, Nature. 459 (2009) 248–252.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.A. Myers, B. Worm, Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities, Nature. 423 (2003) 280–283.
A journal article with 3 authors
P.K. Arora, A. Srivastava, V.P. Singh, Degradation of 4-chloro-3-nitrophenol via a novel intermediate, 4-chlororesorcinol by Pseudomonas sp. JHN, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4475.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Z.Y. Wang, H. Seto, S. Fujioka, S. Yoshida, J. Chory, BRI1 is a critical component of a plasma-membrane receptor for plant steroids, Nature. 410 (2001) 380–383.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A.L. Sheldrake, Handbook of Electrical Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2005.
An edited book
M. Balduccini, T.C. Son, eds., Logic Programming, Knowledge Representation, and Nonmonotonic Reasoning: Essays Dedicated to Michael Gelfond on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Lavatelli, G. Palladini, G. Merlini, Pathogenesis of Systemic Amyloidoses, in: M.A. Gertz, S.V. Rajkumar (Eds.), Amyloidosis: Diagnosis and Treatment, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2010: pp. 49–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid State Ionics.

Blog post
J. Fang, Single Tree Grows 40 Kinds Of Fruit, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Access to Arts Education: Inclusion of Additional Questions in Education’s Planned Research Would Help Explain Why Instruction Time Has Decreased for Some Students, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P.R. Simon, Gender grouping and its initial effect on a Title I upper elementary school during the pilot year of implementation, Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Antilla, Decades After Suit, Wall St. Bias Persists for Women, New York Times. (2016) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid State Ionics
AbbreviationSolid State Ion.
ISSN (print)0167-2738
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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