How to format your references using the Solid State Ionics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid State Ionics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.R. Scott, Polymers: Secrets from the deep sea, Nature. 519 (2015) S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.T. Trauger, W.A. Traub, A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet, Nature. 446 (2007) 771–773.
A journal article with 3 authors
K.N. Laland, J. Odling-Smee, M.W. Feldman, Causing a commotion, Nature. 429 (2004) 609.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.O. Demokritov, A.A. Serga, V.E. Demidov, B. Hillebrands, M.P. Kostylev, B.A. Kalinikos, Experimental observation of symmetry-breaking nonlinear modes in an active ring, Nature. 426 (2003) 159–162.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G.E. Montgomery, H.C. Schuch, GIS Data Conversion Handbook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2007.
An edited book
S.A. Tanumihardjo, ed., Carotenoids and Human Health, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Flórez Valencia, J. Azencot, M. Orkisz, Algorithm for Blood-Vessel Segmentation in 3D Images Based on a Right Generalized Cylinder Model: Application to Carotid Arteries, in: L. Bolc, R. Tadeusiewicz, L.J. Chmielewski, K. Wojciechowski (Eds.), Computer Vision and Graphics: International Conference, ICCVG 2010, Warsaw, Poland, September 20-22, 2010, Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 27–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid State Ionics.

Blog post
J. Davis, Dying Coral Reefs May Mask The Scent Of Predators, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Developing State Automated Information Systems To Support Federal Assistance Programs: Problems and Opportunities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Boysen, The ESCRT machinery, required for endosomal trafficking, is a pH-signaling platform, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Leland, Immersed in Scores, Concerts and Classes, New York Times. (2016) MB2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid State Ionics
AbbreviationSolid State Ion.
ISSN (print)0167-2738
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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