How to format your references using the Solid State Ionics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid State Ionics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.D. Hackney, Biochemistry. Processive motor movement, Science. 316 (2007) 58–59.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.S. Rivkin, J.P. Emery, Detection of ice and organics on an asteroidal surface, Nature. 464 (2010) 1322–1323.
A journal article with 3 authors
V. Dragoi, C. Rivadulla, M. Sur, Foci of orientation plasticity in visual cortex, Nature. 411 (2001) 80–86.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Okamoto, S. Hamao, H. Goto, Y. Sakai, M. Izumi, S. Gohda, Y. Kubozono, R. Eguchi, Transistor application of alkyl-substituted picene, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5048.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Jufer, Electric Drives, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA, 2013.
An edited book
S.S. Azimova, ed., Natural Compounds: Cycloartane Triterpenoids and Glycosides, Springer, New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
I. Díaz, J. Touriño, R. Doallo, Towards Low-Latency Model-Oriented Distributed Systems Management, in: S. Ata, C.S. Hong (Eds.), Managing Next Generation Networks and Services: 10th Asia-Pacific Network Operations and Management Symposium, APNOMS 2007, Sapporo, Japan, October 10-12, 2007. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007: pp. 41–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid State Ionics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, A new metamaterial gives visible light a nearly infinite wavelength, IFLScience. (2013). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Financial Markets: Preliminary Observations on the October 1987 Crash, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.J. Lemheney, Design and development of virtual reality simulation for teaching high-risk low-volume problem-prone office-based medical emergencies, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Santora, Crash Kills 3 College Students on Medical Mission in Honduras, New York Times. (2016) A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid State Ionics
AbbreviationSolid State Ion.
ISSN (print)0167-2738
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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