How to format your references using the Health Care Management Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Care Management Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker TA (2007) Obituary: Arthur Kornberg (1918-2007). Nature 450:809
A journal article with 2 authors
Valiela I, Fox SE (2008) Ecology. Managing coastal wetlands. Science 319:290–291
A journal article with 3 authors
Dreger DS, Ford SR, Walter WR (2008) Source analysis of the Crandall Canyon, Utah, mine collapse. Science 321:217
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gray WM, Kepinski S, Rouse D, et al (2001) Auxin regulates SCF(TIR1)-dependent degradation of AUX/IAA proteins. Nature 414:271–276

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety (1995) Guidelines for Technical Planning for on-site Emergencies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Borowitzka MA, Beardall J, Raven JA (2016) The Physiology of Microalgae, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Buchan S (2012) Through Music to Postgraduate Study. In: Ryan M (ed) Reflections on Learning, Life and Work: Completing Doctoral Studies in Mid and Later Life and Career. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp 53–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Care Management Science.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) New Horizons Sends Back New Images Of Pluto’s Smallest Moon Styx. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) Federal Agencies’ Maintenance of Computer Programs: Expensive and Undermanaged. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jordan EA (2010) The semiconductor industry and emerging technologies: A study using a modified Delphi method. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Care Management Science
AbbreviationHealth Care Manag. Sci.
ISSN (print)1386-9620
ISSN (online)1572-9389
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
General Health Professions

Other styles