How to format your references using the Health Care Management Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Care Management Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xu X (2010) Journal club. A palaeontologist considers the evolution of birds’ mechanism of breathing. Nature 464:961
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee WY, Sine SM (2005) Principal pathway coupling agonist binding to channel gating in nicotinic receptors. Nature 438:243–247
A journal article with 3 authors
Tao C, Cullen WG, Williams ED (2010) Visualizing the electron scattering force in nanostructures. Science 328:736–740
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Alghamedi R, Vasiliev M, Nur-E-Alam M, Alameh K (2014) Spectrally-selective all-inorganic scattering luminophores for solar energy-harvesting clear glass windows. Sci Rep 4:6632

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ippolito LJ Jr (2008) Satellite Communications Systems Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Schmidt M, Kelle A, Ganguli-Mitra A, Vriend H (2010) Synthetic Biology: The technoscience and its societal consequences. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Crosby M (2016) China’s Rise and Its Impact on South East Asian Businesses. In: Verhezen P, Williamson I, Crosby M, Soebagjo N (eds) Doing Business in ASEAN Markets: Leadership Challenges and Governance Solutions across Asian Borders. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 65–72

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Care Management Science.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Meatier Than A Meteor: Bakers Send Pie Into Space. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) Highway Safety Research and Development--Better Management Can Make It More Useful. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldstein TW (2010) Writing in red: The East German Writers Union and the role of literary intellectuals in the German Democratic Republic, 1971-90. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sanger DE, Schmitt E, Hubbard B (2017) Trump Ends Covert Aid to Syrian Rebels Trying to Oust Assad. New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Care Management Science
AbbreviationHealth Care Manag. Sci.
ISSN (print)1386-9620
ISSN (online)1572-9389
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
General Health Professions

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