How to format your references using the Health Care Management Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Care Management Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Egolf DA (2002) Statistical mechanics. Far from equilibrium. Science 296:1813–1815
A journal article with 2 authors
Harper NS, McAlpine D (2004) Optimal neural population coding of an auditory spatial cue. Nature 430:682–686
A journal article with 3 authors
Kohli RM, Walsh CT, Burkart MD (2002) Biomimetic synthesis and optimization of cyclic peptide antibiotics. Nature 418:658–661
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Houlahan JE, Findlay CS, Schmidt BR, et al (2000) Quantitative evidence for global amphibian population declines. Nature 404:752–755

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertocchi M, Schwartz SL, Ziemba WT (2010) Optimizing the Aging, Retirement, and Pensions Dilemma. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kato T (2008) Liquid Crystalline Functional Assemblies and Their Supramolecular Structures. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Bellin-Mularski N, Mah D-K, Ifenthaler D (2016) Pre-Service Teachers’ Perceptions of School Development. In: Spector JM, Ifenthaler D, Sampson DG, Isaias P (eds) Competencies in Teaching, Learning and Educational Leadership in the Digital Age: Papers from CELDA 2014. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 57–76

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Care Management Science.

Blog post
Andrew E (2016) How Dangerous Is Turbulence … And Can It Bring Down A Plane? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Rail Abandonments: Abandonment Activity and Shipper Views on Rail Service Loss. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nixon HA (2015) Defining Principals: The Seen and the Unseen. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium Standards Five and Six. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Otis J (2016) Giving Up Almost Everything to Care for His Wife? ‘I See It as a Pleasure.’ New York Times A20

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Care Management Science
AbbreviationHealth Care Manag. Sci.
ISSN (print)1386-9620
ISSN (online)1572-9389
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
General Health Professions

Other styles