How to format your references using the Solid State Electronics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid State Electronics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Bloodworth, Resources: Track flows to manage technology-metal supply, Nature. 505 (2014) 19–20.
A journal article with 2 authors
L. Gao, T. Theuns, Lighting the universe with filaments, Science. 317 (2007) 1527–1530.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Gembris, J.G. Taylor, D. Suter, Trends and random fluctuations in athletics, Nature. 417 (2002) 506.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Kato, H. Inagaki, K. Yamada, H. Kogo, T. Ohye, H. Kowa, K. Nagaoka, M. Taniguchi, B.S. Emanuel, H. Kurahashi, Genetic variation affects de novo translocation frequency, Science. 311 (2006) 971.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.N. Sahalos, Orthogonal Methods for Array Synthesis, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
F. Cazals, P. Kornprobst, eds., Modeling in Computational Biology and Biomedicine: A Multidisciplinary Endeavor, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Hibino, T. Yao, γ-Ferric Oxide / Carbon Composite Synthesized by Aqueous Solution Method as a Cathode for Lithium-Ion Batteries, in: T. Yao (Ed.), Zero-Carbon Energy Kyoto 2009, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2010: pp. 31–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid State Electronics Letters.

Blog post
J. Fang, The Visual Centers in the Brains of Blind Crustaceans are Shrinking, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Equal Employment Opportunity Program Could Be Improved, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.M. Gikiri, Effects of attitude, norms, and perceived behavior control on intentions to become a teen father, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Barron, Age Requirement At Chelsea Art Gallery: Over 60 Only, New York Times. (2017) A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid State Electronics Letters
ISSN (print)2589-2088

Other styles