How to format your references using the Solid State Electronics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid State Electronics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Marshall, Clinical trials and tribulations. Lemons, oranges, and complexity. Introduction, Science. 322 (2008) 209.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Kurzban, H.C. Barrett, Behavior. Origins of cumulative culture, Science. 335 (2012) 1056–1057.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Savaldi-Goldstein, C. Peto, J. Chory, The epidermis both drives and restricts plant shoot growth, Nature. 446 (2007) 199–202.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J.S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, A.J. Heeger, High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm, Science. 325 (2009) 1665–1667.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Reay, Digital Signal Processing and Applications with the OMAP-L138 eXperimenter, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
R.N. Mohapatra, D.R. Chowdhury, D. Giri, eds., Mathematics and Computing: ICMC, Haldia, India, January 2015, Springer India, New Delhi, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Jambor, S. Babu, Regional Challenges in Ensuring Food Security, in: S. Babu (Ed.), Competitiveness of Global Agriculture: Policy Lessons for Food Security, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 75–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid State Electronics Letters.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Scientists Develop Bionic Pancreas For Type 1 Diabetics, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Department of Transportation: Flexible Funding Within Federal Highway Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.M. Amin, Detecting targeted malicious email through supervised classification of persistent threat and recipient oriented features, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
R. Blumenthal, L. Greenhouse, Texas Planning New Execution Despite Ruling, New York Times. (2007) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid State Electronics Letters
ISSN (print)2589-2088

Other styles