How to format your references using the Solid State Electronics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid State Electronics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Fenchel, Microbiology. Biogeography for bacteria, Science. 301 (2003) 925–926.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.A. West, B.C. Sheldon, Constraints in the evolution of sex ratio adjustment, Science. 295 (2002) 1685–1688.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y.M. Yamashita, D.L. Jones, M.T. Fuller, Orientation of asymmetric stem cell division by the APC tumor suppressor and centrosome, Science. 301 (2003) 1547–1550.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Pfeilsticker, A. Lotter, C. Peters, H. Bosch, Atmospheric detection of water dimers via near-infrared absorption, Science. 300 (2003) 2078–2080.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F.B. Saksena, Color Atlas of Local and Systemic Signs of Cardiovascular Disease, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2008.
An edited book
W.C. Parks, R.P. Mecham, eds., Extracellular Matrix Degradation, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Berg, H. Hempel, Inverse Problems Have Inverse Complexity, in: G. Ausiello, J. Karhumäki, G. Mauri, L. Ong (Eds.), Fifth Ifip International Conference On Theoretical Computer Science – Tcs 2008, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2008: pp. 73–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid State Electronics Letters.

Blog post
D. Andrew, The 12 Most Controversial Facts In Mathematics, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, School Age Demographics: Recent Trends Pose New Educational Challenges, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.M. Baxter, Enantioselective Mannich-type Reactions Promoted by Strained Silane Lewis Acids: Selective Generation of Two Contiguous Stereocenters and Entry into a Novel Class of Pyrrolidines, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.J.O. Murphy, Friday File, New York Times. (2014) C31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid State Electronics Letters
ISSN (print)2589-2088

Other styles