How to format your references using the Frontiers in Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sharpe, J. (2014). Developmental biology: Cells unite by trapping a signal. Nature 515, 41–42.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gorin, D. J., and Toste, F. D. (2007). Relativistic effects in homogeneous gold catalysis. Nature 446, 395–403.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gupta, R., He, Z., and Luan, S. (2002). Functional relationship of cytochrome c(6) and plastocyanin in Arabidopsis. Nature 417, 567–571.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cohen, J. C., Kiss, R. S., Pertsemlidis, A., Marcel, Y. L., McPherson, R., and Hobbs, H. H. (2004). Multiple rare alleles contribute to low plasma levels of HDL cholesterol. Science 305, 869–872.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simon, M. K., Lee, D., Martin, W. L., Tsou, H., and Yan, T.-Y. (2005). Bandwidth-Efficient Digital Modulation with Application to Deep Space Communications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dada, A., Stanoevska, K., and Gómez, J. M. eds. (2013). Organizations’ Environmental Performance Indicators: Measuring, Monitoring, and Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Clemente, J. B., and Adorna, H. N. (2013). “Some Improvements of Parallel Random Projection for Finding Planted (l,d)-Motifs,” in Theory and Practice of Computation: 2nd Workshop on Computation: Theory and Practice, Manila, The Philippines, September 2012, Proceedings Proceedings in Information and Communications Technology., eds. S.-Y. Nishizaki, M. Numao, J. Caro, and M. T. Suarez (Tokyo: Springer Japan), 64–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Virology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). The Number Of Chimpanzees Used In Biomedical Research Is Declining. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994). New Denver Airport: Impact of the Delayed Baggage System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Delmont, L. O. (2012). Wings pumping, wings stilled.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2002). World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: More Blamed In Air Disaster. New York Times, A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sharpe, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gorin and Toste, 2007; Sharpe, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gorin and Toste, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Cohen et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Virology
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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