How to format your references using the Frontiers in Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zhu, Z. (2015). Astrophysics: Growing planet brought to light. Nature 527, 310–311.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milisavljevic, D., and Fesen, R. A. (2015). Supernovae. The bubble-like interior of the core-collapse supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. Science 347, 526–530.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schaller, T., Goujon, C., and Malim, M. H. (2012). AIDS/HIV. HIV interplay with SAMHD1. Science 335, 1313–1314.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Aquino, G., Tweedy, L., Heinrich, D., and Endres, R. G. (2014). Memory improves precision of cell sensing in fluctuating environments. Sci. Rep. 4, 5688.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brillson, L. J. (2016). An Essential Guide to Electronic Material Surfaces and Interfaces. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Reid, A. D., Hart, E. P., and Peters, M. A. eds. (2014). A Companion to Research in Education. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Kirsch, C. M., and Sokolova, A. (2012). “The Logical Execution Time Paradigm,” in Advances in Real-Time Systems, eds. S. Chakraborty and J. Eberspächer (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 103–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Virology.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016). How Realistic Is It To Ask Someone To “Cry A River”? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992). Practitioner Data Bank: Information on Small Medical Malpractice Payments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shackelford, V. (2014). Mary’s mandala story: Images of chaos in mandala psychology.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2010). Russia: Fire Destroys Church Near Ravine Where Remains of a Czar Were Found. New York Times, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zhu, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Milisavljevic and Fesen, 2015; Zhu, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Milisavljevic and Fesen, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Aquino et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Virology
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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