How to format your references using the Frontiers in Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jackson, C. M. (2005). Archaeology. Glassmaking in Bronze-Age Egypt. Science 308, 1750–1752.
A journal article with 2 authors
Flint, J., and Munafò, M. (2014). Schizophrenia: genesis of a complex disease. Nature 511, 412–413.
A journal article with 3 authors
Betrouche, M., Maamache, M., and Choi, J. R. (2013). Novel characteristics of energy spectrum for 3D Dirac oscillator analyzed via Lorentz covariant deformed algebra. Sci. Rep. 3, 3221.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hime, T., Reichardt, P. A., Plourde, B. L. T., Robertson, T. L., Wu, C.-E., Ustinov, A. V., et al. (2006). Solid-state qubits with current-controlled coupling. Science 314, 1427–1429.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mittleman, A. L. (2011). A Short History of Jewish Ethics. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Hendrikse, G., Tuunanen, M., Windsperger, J., and Cliquet, G. eds. (2008). Strategy and Governance of Networks: Cooperatives, Franchising, and Strategic Alliances. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD.
A chapter in an edited book
Charles, K. E., and Egan, V. (2008). “Sensational and Extreme Interests in Adolescents,” in Serial Murder and the Psychology of Violent Crimes, ed. R. N. Kocsis (Totowa, NJ: Humana Press), 63–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Virology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Can Zoos Save The World? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992). High Risk Series: Guaranteed Student Loans. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Li, X. (2009). Graph-based learning for information systems.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conte, L. (2011). Scouting Report. New York Times, E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jackson, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Jackson, 2005; Flint and Munafò, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Flint and Munafò, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Hime et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Virology
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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