How to format your references using the Frontiers in Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kempermann, G. (2013). Neuroscience. What the bomb said about the brain. Science 340, 1180–1181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boolchand, P., and Bresser, W. J. (2001). Mobile silver ions and glass formation in solid electrolytes. Nature 410, 1070–1073.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pearson, D. G., Parman, S. W., and Nowell, G. M. (2007). A link between large mantle melting events and continent growth seen in osmium isotopes. Nature 449, 202–205.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zimmerman, C., Klein, K. C., Kiser, P. K., Singh, A. R., Firestein, B. L., Riba, S. C., et al. (2002). Identification of a host protein essential for assembly of immature HIV-1 capsids. Nature 415, 88–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hornberg, A. (2017). Handbook of Machine and Computer Vision. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Cai, J. (2016). International Comparative Studies in Mathematics: Lessons for Improving Students’ Learning. , eds. I. A. C. Mok, V. Reddy, and K. Stacey Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Vestergaard, C., and Deleuran, M. S. (2014). “Inflammatory-Driven Depletion of Filaggrin Proteins,” in Filaggrin: Basic Science, Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects and Management, eds. J. P. Thyssen and H. I. Maibach (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 27–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Virology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). World Hunger Has Significantly Dropped Despite Population Growth. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004). Information Technology: OMB and Department of Homeland Security Investment Reviews. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dickens, K. R. (2010). Factors influencing teacher job satisfaction and their alignment with current district practices in a suburban school district.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, M. (2017). Artistic Director Leaves The Labyrinth Theater. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kempermann, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Boolchand and Bresser, 2001; Kempermann, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boolchand and Bresser, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Zimmerman et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Virology
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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