How to format your references using the Solid Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ferry, D.K., 2008. Materials science. Nanowires in nanoelectronics. Science 319, 579–580.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roberson, E.D., Mucke, L., 2006. 100 years and counting: prospects for defeating Alzheimer’s disease. Science 314, 781–784.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bliss, T.V.P., Collingridge, G.L., Laroche, S., 2006. Neuroscience. ZAP and ZIP, a story to forget. Science 313, 1058–1059.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rauhut, O.W.M., Remes, K., Fechner, R., Cladera, G., Puerta, P., 2005. Discovery of a short-necked sauropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Patagonia. Nature 435, 670–672.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chow, S.-C., Liu, J.-P., 2005. Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials: Concepts and Methodologies, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Robert-McComb, J.J., Norman, R., Zumwalt, M. (Eds.), 2008. The Active Female: Health Issues Throughout The Lifespan. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Mansour, S., Magnan, J., Haidar, H., Nicolas, K., Louryan, S., 2013. The Mastoid, in: Magnan, J., Haidar, H., Nicolas, K., Louryan, S. (Eds.), Comprehensive and Clinical Anatomy of the Middle Ear. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 105–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Questions You Should Ask Yourself Before Getting Cryogenically Frozen [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Voluntary Consensus Standards: Agencies’ Compliance With the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (No. T-RCED-00-122). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duley, L.A., 2012. A Qualitative Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences of Women Remaining in Abusive Relationships (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1992. The Winners Shift Gears: What Now? New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ferry, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Ferry, 2008; Roberson and Mucke, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roberson and Mucke, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Rauhut et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid Earth Sciences
AbbreviationSolid Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)2451-912X

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