How to format your references using the Solid Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goudsmit, J., 2009. Obituary: Daniel Carleton Gajdusek (1923-2008). Nature 457, 394.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kuper, R., Kröpelin, S., 2006. Climate-controlled Holocene occupation in the Sahara: motor of Africa’s evolution. Science 313, 803–807.
A journal article with 3 authors
Debs, J.E., Robins, N.P., Close, J.D., 2013. Physics. Measuring mass in seconds. Science 339, 532–533.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Prins, L.J., De Jong, F., Timmerman, P., Reinhoudt, D.N., 2000. An enantiomerically pure hydrogen-bonded assembly. Nature 408, 181–184.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam, M.R., Hossain, M.E., Moussavizadegan, S.H., Mustafiz, S., Abou&xKassem, J.H., 2016. Advanced Petroleum Reservoir Simulation. John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Boswell, M.R., 2012. Local Climate Action Planning. Island Press/Center for Resource Economics, Washington, DC.
A chapter in an edited book
Rückert, U., Kloft, M., 2011. Transfer Learning with Adaptive Regularizers, in: Gunopulos, D., Hofmann, T., Malerba, D., Vazirgiannis, M. (Eds.), Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases: European Conference, ECML PKDD 2011, Athens, Greece, September 5-9, 2011, Proceedings, Part III, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 65–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Watch A Colorblind Man See The World In Color For The First Time [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Financial Audit: District of Columbia Highway Trust Fund’s 1996 Financial Statements (No. AIMD-98-30). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clark, K.N., 2012. Institutions and Self-Governing Social Systems: Linking Reflexivity and Institutional Theories for Cybersecurity and Other Commons Governance Policies (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1992. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Candidate’s Record; Perot Shows Penchant For Seeing Conspiracy. New York Times A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goudsmit, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Goudsmit, 2009; Kuper and Kröpelin, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kuper and Kröpelin, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Prins et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid Earth Sciences
AbbreviationSolid Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)2451-912X

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