How to format your references using the Solid Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Risaliti, G., 2014. Astrophysics: Cosmic lens reveals spinning black hole. Nature 507, 173–174.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knollmann, B.C., Roden, D.M., 2008. A genetic framework for improving arrhythmia therapy. Nature 451, 929–936.
A journal article with 3 authors
Castro-Camus, E., Palomar, M., Covarrubias, A.A., 2013. Leaf water dynamics of Arabidopsis thaliana monitored in-vivo using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Sci. Rep. 3, 2910.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Matsuo, Y., Imagawa, H., Nishizawa, M., Shizuri, Y., 2005. Isolation of an algal morphogenesis inducer from a marine bacterium. Science 307, 1598.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shahidi, A., 2014. Balanced Asset Allocation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wang, Y., Li, T. (Eds.), 2012. Foundations of Intelligent Systems: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering, Shanghai, China, Dec 2011 (ISKE2011), Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Schlesinger, K.-G., 2009. Some Steps Towards Noncommutative Mirror Symmetry on the Torus, in: Fauser, B., Tolksdorf, J., Zeidler, E. (Eds.), Quantum Field Theory: Competitive Models. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp. 83–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Why Antioxidants Might Actually Make Your Cancer Worse [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Ineffective Planning and Oversight Practices Underscore the Need for Improved Contract Management (No. GAO-14-694). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tucker, M.S., 2010. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of in vitro selected artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017. Film Series. New York Times C21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Risaliti, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Knollmann and Roden, 2008; Risaliti, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Knollmann and Roden, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Matsuo et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid Earth Sciences
AbbreviationSolid Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)2451-912X

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