How to format your references using the Solid Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mokyr, J., 2015. ECONOMICS. Intellectuals and the rise of the modern economy. Science 349, 141–142.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, S.-J., Masliah, E., 2015. Neurodegeneration: Aggregates feel the strain. Nature 522, 296–297.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zimmer, J., Nam, Y., Rapoport, T.A., 2008. Structure of a complex of the ATPase SecA and the protein-translocation channel. Nature 455, 936–943.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Giurfa, M., Zhang, S., Jenett, A., Menzel, R., Srinivasan, M.V., 2001. The concepts of “sameness” and “difference” in an insect. Nature 410, 930–933.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cicek, V., 2013. Cathodic Protection. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Shepard, R., Pitzer, R.M., Dunning, T. (Eds.), 2016. Isaiah Shavitt: A Memorial Festschrift from Theoretical Chemistry Accounts, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Highlights in Theoretical Chemistry. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Madeddu, G., Spanu, A., 2008. Axillary Lymph Node Status Evaluation in Breast Cancer Patients: Role of SPECT and Pinhole SPECT with Cationic Lipophilic Radiotracers, in: Bombardieri, E., Gianni, L., Bonadonna, G. (Eds.), Breast Cancer: Nuclear Medicine in Diagnosis and Therapeutic Options. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 43–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Hubble Spots Most Distant Cosmic Magnifying Glass Yet [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Aircraft Maintenance: Additional FAA Oversight Needed of Aging Aircraft Repairs (Vol. II) (No. RCED-91-91B). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cong, M., 2015. Predictive models of cytotoxicity as mediated by exposure to environmental toxicants and drugs (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2003. Russian Youth Movement Linked to Jailed Tycoon Has Wide Civic Goals. New York Times 112.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mokyr, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Lee and Masliah, 2015; Mokyr, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Masliah, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Giurfa et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid Earth Sciences
AbbreviationSolid Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)2451-912X

Other styles