How to format your references using the Solid Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barinaga, M., 2000. SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY: Look Before You Leap. Science 289, 2028.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chhowalla, M., Amaratunga, G.A., 2000. Thin films of fullerene-like MoS2 nanoparticles with ultra-low friction and wear. Nature 407, 164–167.
A journal article with 3 authors
Okuwaki, R., Yagi, Y., Hirano, S., 2014. Relationship between high-frequency radiation and asperity ruptures, revealed by hybrid back-projection with a non-planar fault model. Sci. Rep. 4, 7120.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Steinle-Neumann, G., Stixrude, L., Cohen, R.E., Gülseren, O., 2001. Elasticity of iron at the temperature of the Earth’s inner core. Nature 413, 57–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
De Martini, D., 2013. Success Probability Estimation with Applications to Clinical Trials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Alegre Pérez, J.P., 2011. Automatic Gain Control: Techniques and Architectures for RF Receivers, Analog Circuits and Signal Processing. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Jiang, H., Gero, J.S., Yen, C.-C., 2014. Exploring Designing Styles Using a Problem–Solution Division, in: Gero, J.S. (Ed.), Design Computing and Cognition ’12. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 79–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Near Earth And Far Away, It’s Been An Exciting Year In Space [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Automated Medical Records: Leadership Needed to Expedite Standards Development (No. IMTEC-93-17). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kutash, M., 2015. The Relationship Between Nurses’ Emotional Intelligence and Patient Outcomes (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G., 2012. Quantum Leaps. New York Times BR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barinaga, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Barinaga, 2000; Chhowalla and Amaratunga, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chhowalla and Amaratunga, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Steinle-Neumann et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid Earth Sciences
AbbreviationSolid Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)2451-912X

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