How to format your references using the Solid Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Solid Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Strunk, C., 2004. Applied physics. Boosting magnetoresistance in molecular devices. Science 306, 63–64.
A journal article with 2 authors
van Enk, S.J., Kimble, H.J., 2005. Comment on “Quantum state transfer between matter and light.” Science 309, 1187; author reply 1187.
A journal article with 3 authors
Westfall, P.J., Ballon, D.R., Thorner, J., 2004. When the stress of your environment makes you go HOG wild. Science 306, 1511–1512.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bulte, E., Damania, R., Lindsey, G., Lindsay, K., 2004. Ecology and conservation. Space--the final frontier for economists and elephants. Science 306, 420–421.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berntsen, E.S., Thompson, J., 2015. A Guide to Starting Your Hedge Fund. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Nordström, B., Ranta, A. (Eds.), 2008. Advances in Natural Language Processing: 6th International Conference, GoTAL 2008 Gothenburg, Sweden, August 25-27, 2008 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kacprzyk, J., Zadrożny, S., 2015. Linguistic Summaries of Time Series: A Powerful and Prospective Tool for Discovering Knowledge on Time Varying Processes and Systems, in: Seising, R., Trillas, E., Kacprzyk, J. (Eds.), Towards the Future of Fuzzy Logic, Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 65–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Solid Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Largest Known Asteroid Impact Zone Discovered [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Telecommunications: Impact of Sports Programming Costs on Cable Television Rates (No. RCED-99-136). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Childers, J.W., 2017. Evaluating parental opinions of healthy snack guidelines for youth soccer (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lanchester, J., 2017. Should We Trash Cash? New York Times MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Strunk, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Strunk, 2004; van Enk and Kimble, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van Enk and Kimble, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Bulte et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleSolid Earth Sciences
AbbreviationSolid Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)2451-912X

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