How to format your references using the Ethics and Information Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Information Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beyea, J. (2010). Science and society. The smart electricity grid and scientific research. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5981), 979–980.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang, W. Y., & Gruebele, M. (2003). Folding at the speed limit. Nature, 423(6936), 193–197.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goebel, T., Waters, M. R., & O’Rourke, D. H. (2008). The late Pleistocene dispersal of modern humans in the Americas. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5869), 1497–1502.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Anest, V., Hanson, J. L., Cogswell, P. C., Steinbrecher, K. A., Strahl, B. D., & Baldwin, A. S. (2003). A nucleosomal function for IkappaB kinase-alpha in NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression. Nature, 423(6940), 659–663.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Svensson, H. (2011). Schrägkabelbrücken. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Lu, T. (2014). Vibro-Acoustics of Lightweight Sandwich Structures. (F. Xin, Ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jones, T. G., Ratsimba, H. R., Carro, A., Ravaoarinorotsihoarana, L., Glass, L., Teoh, M., et al. (2016). The Mangroves of Ambanja and Ambaro Bays, Northwest Madagascar: Historical Dynamics, Current Status and Deforestation Mitigation Strategy. In S. Diop, P. Scheren, & J. Ferdinand Machiwa (Eds.), Estuaries: A Lifeline of Ecosystem Services in the Western Indian Ocean (pp. 67–85). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Information Technology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 17). Episodic Memory Formation In The Hippocampus. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). The Civil Division, 1956-1972: Interview With Gregory J. Ahart, Henry Eschwege, and Victor L. Lowe (No. OP-22-OH). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mycroft, D. (2012). Minorities in leadership and financial performance of their Fortune 500 companies (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, February 16). They Sing and Dance, but This Isn’t “La La Land’. New York Times, p. C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Beyea 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Beyea 2010; Yang and Gruebele 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yang and Gruebele 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Anest et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Information Technology
AbbreviationEthics Inf. Technol.
ISSN (print)1388-1957
ISSN (online)1572-8439
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Library and Information Sciences

Other styles