How to format your references using the Ethics and Information Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Information Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gilmore, G. (2004). Astronomy. The short spectacular life of a superstar. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5679), 1915–1916.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sagarin, R., & Micheli, F. (2001). Climate change in nontraditional data sets. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5543), 811.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mitchell, A., Wei, P., & Lim, W. A. (2015). Oscillatory stress stimulation uncovers an Achilles’ heel of the yeast MAPK signaling network. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6266), 1379–1383.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Quezada, J. C., Saussine, G., Breul, P., & Radjaï, F. (2014). Predicting the settlement of coarse granular materials under vertical loading. Scientific reports, 4, 5707.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lamattina, J. L. (2012). Devalued and Distrusted. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Boulabiar, K., Buskes, G., & Triki, A. (Eds.). (2007). Positivity. Basel: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
VanBalkom, W. D., & Beara, M. (2012). Making or Breaking the Peace: The Role of Schools in Inter-Ethnic Peace Making. In O. Simić, Z. Volčič, & C. R. Philpot (Eds.), Peace Psychology in the Balkans: Dealing with a Violent Past while Building Peace (pp. 75–87). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Information Technology.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017, May 17). NASA Has Developed Futuristic Chain Mail Fabric To Use In Space. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Aviation Safety: Chicago Center Work Force Views of the Air Traffic Control System (No. RCED-89-205FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Otarola, A. C. (2008). The effects of turbulence in an absorbing atmosphere on the propagation of microwave signals used in an active sounding system (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walker, M. (2017, June 8). Choosing Photographs Over Paintings. New York Times, p. C14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gilmore 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Gilmore 2004; Sagarin and Micheli 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sagarin and Micheli 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Quezada et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Information Technology
AbbreviationEthics Inf. Technol.
ISSN (print)1388-1957
ISSN (online)1572-8439
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Library and Information Sciences

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