How to format your references using the Ethics and Information Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Information Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Njau, J. (2012). Paleontology. Reading Pliocene bones. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6077), 46–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dye, C., & Raviglione, M. (2013). Perspective: Weigh all TB risks. Nature, 502(7470), S13.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chuang, J. S., Rivoire, O., & Leibler, S. (2009). Simpson’s paradox in a synthetic microbial system. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5911), 272–275.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Licciardi, J. M., Schaefer, J. M., Taggart, J. R., & Lund, D. C. (2009). Holocene glacier fluctuations in the Peruvian Andes indicate northern climate linkages. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5948), 1677–1679.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tardu, S. (2011). Statistical Approach to Wall Turbulence. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zermelo, E. (2010). Ernst Zermelo - Collected Works/Gesammelte Werke: Volume I - Set Theory, Miscellanea / Band I - Mengenlehre, Varia. (H.-D. Ebbinghaus, C. G. Fraser, & A. Kanamori, Eds.) (Vol. 21). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Atkinson, K., & Han, W. (2012). Approximation Theory. In W. Han (Ed.), Spherical Harmonics and Approximations on the Unit Sphere: An Introduction (pp. 131–163). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Information Technology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, March 11). Blood test predicts Alzheimer’s before symptoms show. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Ship Acquisitions (No. NSIAD-94-96R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzales, M. (2017). Examining institutional career preparation: Student perceptions of their workplace readiness and the role of the university in student career development (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2000, November 26). That Distinctive New-Park Odor Turns Out to Be Leaking Sewage. New York Times, p. 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Njau 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Dye and Raviglione 2013; Njau 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dye and Raviglione 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Licciardi et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Information Technology
AbbreviationEthics Inf. Technol.
ISSN (print)1388-1957
ISSN (online)1572-8439
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Library and Information Sciences

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