How to format your references using the Ethics and Information Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Information Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball, P. (2002). Statistics: the physics of society. Nature, 415(6870), 371.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sadler, P. M., & Tai, R. H. (2007). Transitions. The two high-school pillars supporting college science. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5837), 457–458.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayashi, K., Hasegawa, J., & Matsunaga, S. (2013). The boundary of the meristematic and elongation zones in roots: endoreduplication precedes rapid cell expansion. Scientific reports, 3, 2723.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Narayanaswamy, N., Kumar, M., Das, S., Sharma, R., Samanta, P. K., Pati, S. K., et al. (2014). A thiazole coumarin (TC) turn-on fluorescence probe for AT-base pair detection and multipurpose applications in different biological systems. Scientific reports, 4, 6476.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perez, R. X., & Conkey, A. P. (2016). Troubleshooting Rotating Machinery. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Shah, V. P., Maibach, H. I., & Jenner, J. (Eds.). (2014). Topical Drug Bioavailability, Bioequivalence, and Penetration (2nd ed. 2014.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Binder, H. (2016). Clinical Evaluation of Residual Brain Function and Responsiveness in Disorders of Consciousness. In M. M. Monti & W. G. Sannita (Eds.), Brain Function and Responsiveness in Disorders of Consciousness (pp. 37–49). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Information Technology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, July 22). Strange “Haze” Spotted On Ceres Suggests Those Bright Spots Are Actually Made Of Ice. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Technology Selection at INS Needs Improvement (No. T-PEMD-88-6). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramos, E. (2013). Emergency department utilization among Medicare enrollees: A project report (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kershner, I., & Hubbard, B. (2016, December 21). Hezbollah Is Using U.S.-Made Armor in Syria, Israel Says. New York Times, p. A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ball 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ball 2002; Sadler and Tai 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sadler and Tai 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Narayanaswamy et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Information Technology
AbbreviationEthics Inf. Technol.
ISSN (print)1388-1957
ISSN (online)1572-8439
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Library and Information Sciences

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