How to format your references using the Ethics and Information Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Information Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Joye, S. B. (2015). MARINE SCIENCE. Deepwater Horizon, 5 years on. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6248), 592–593.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aronson, S. J., & Rehm, H. L. (2015). Building the foundation for genomics in precision medicine. Nature, 526(7573), 336–342.
A journal article with 3 authors
Plata, G., Henry, C. S., & Vitkup, D. (2015). Long-term phenotypic evolution of bacteria. Nature, 517(7534), 369–372.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Cho, H.-S., Mason, K., Ramyar, K. X., Stanley, A. M., Gabelli, S. B., Denney, D. W., Jr, & Leahy, D. J. (2003). Structure of the extracellular region of HER2 alone and in complex with the Herceptin Fab. Nature, 421(6924), 756–760.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hannam, J. (2017). What Everyone Needs to Know about Tax. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Brocard, C., & Hartig, A. (Eds.). (2014). Molecular Machines Involved in Peroxisome Biogenesis and Maintenance. Vienna: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mahdavi, M. (2009). Solving NP-Complete Problems by Harmony Search. In Z. W. Geem (Ed.), Music-Inspired Harmony Search Algorithm: Theory and Applications (pp. 53–70). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Information Technology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, November 3). Ancient Tectonic Activity Spotted On Mars. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Highways: How State Agencies Adopt New Pavement Technologies (No. PEMD-88-19). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pulido, B. B. (2015). Homes as grounding counterspaces: Mexicana undocumented students utilizing mother-daughter pedagogies of resistance to succeed in higher education (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barry, E. (2008, September 20). Shaky Economy Dims Russian Prospects. New York Times, p. A5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Joye 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Aronson and Rehm 2015; Joye 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aronson and Rehm 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Cho et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Information Technology
AbbreviationEthics Inf. Technol.
ISSN (print)1388-1957
ISSN (online)1572-8439
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Library and Information Sciences

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