How to format your references using the Worm citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Worm. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Putterman S. A physicist links magnetism, force and fatigue. Nature 2008; 454:257.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bettencourt L, West G. A unified theory of urban living. Nature 2010; 467:912–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jansen JFA, Gearhart JD, Bulte JWM. Comment on “Magnetic resonance spectroscopy identifies neural progenitor cells in the live human brain.” Science 2008; 321:640.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kim DJ, Thomas S, Grant T, Botimer J, Fisk Z, Xia J. Surface hall effect and nonlocal transport in SmB₆: evidence for surface conduction. Sci Rep 2013; 3:3150.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cobb AH, Reade JPH. Herbicides and Plant Physiology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Böck R, Bonin F, Campbell N, Poppe R, editors. Multimodal Analyses enabling Artificial Agents in Human-Machine Interaction: Second International Workshop, MA3HMI 2014, Held in Conjunction with INTERSPEECH 2014, Singapore, Singapore, September 14, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Garcke H, Kwak DJC. On Asymptotic Limits of Cahn-Hilliard Systems with Elastic Misfit. In: Mielke A, editor. Analysis, Modeling and Simulation of Multiscale Problems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. page 87–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Worm.

Blog post
Andrew E. First Ever Footage Of Terrifying Deep-Sea Animal [Internet]. IFLScience2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Maritime Administration: Proceeds from the Sale of Obsolete Vessels Were Accounted for, Allocated, and Disbursed Consistent with Applicable Law. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simonsen AE. Risk and resilience: Girls’ experiences navigating space and relationships in a secure residential facility. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Photographs by GEORGE ETHEREDGE for THE NEW YORK TIMES. Front Yards. New York Times2017; :RE6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWorm
ISSN (print)2162-4046
ISSN (online)2162-4054

Other styles