How to format your references using the Worm citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Worm. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Müller-Wodarg ICF. Planetary science. Exploring other worlds to learn more about our own. Science 2006; 312:1319–20.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Johnson CL, Spence AM. Epigenetic licensing of germline gene expression by maternal RNA in C. elegans. Science 2011; 333:1311–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Alexandre C, Baena-Lopez A, Vincent J-P. Patterning and growth control by membrane-tethered Wingless. Nature 2014; 505:180–5.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1.
Xu Q, Kobayashi S, Ye X, Meng X. Comparison of hepatic resection and radiofrequency ablation for small hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis of 16,103 patients. Sci Rep 2014; 4:7252.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Guochao Q, Shuyu T, Min Z, Chun J. The Environment and Landscape in Motorway Design. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Cheah CC. Task-Space Sensory Feedback Control of Robot Manipulators. Singapore: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Dhillon SK, Paunoo B, Sidhu AS. Framework for Biodiversity Information Retrieval in Malaysia. In: Sidhu AS, Dhillon SK, editors. Advances in Biomedical Infrastructure 2013: Proceedings of International Symposium on Biomedical Data Infrastructure (BDI 2013). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. page 15–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Worm.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Global Count Shows Tree Numbers Have Halved Since Dawn Of Human Civilisation. IFLScience2015;

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Airfield Pavement: Keeping Nation’s Runways in Good Condition Could Require Substantially Higher Spending. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Tu KN. Novel bivalent organophosphates as inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase — Compounds with potential for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and studies in the development of asymmetric catalytic Kabachnik-Fields reaction. 2013;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Isherwood C. Ah, Love, as Complicated as a Russian Novel. New York Times2016; :C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWorm
AbbreviationWorm
ISSN (print)2162-4046
ISSN (online)2162-4054
Scope

Other styles