How to format your references using the Worm citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Worm. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barral Y. Cell biology. Septins at the nexus. Science 2010; 329:1289–90.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goswami P, Baruah J. Quantitative assessment of relative roles of drivers of acute respiratory diseases. Sci Rep 2014; 4:6532.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nandy D, Muñoz-Jaramillo A, Martens PCH. The unusual minimum of sunspot cycle 23 caused by meridional plasma flow variations. Nature 2011; 471:80–2.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Okamura K, Chung W-J, Ruby JG, Guo H, Bartel DP, Lai EC. The Drosophila hairpin RNA pathway generates endogenous short interfering RNAs. Nature 2008; 453:803–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benitez M, Davidson J, Flaxman L. Small Schools, Big Ideas. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass; 2009.
An edited book
Russell CT, editor. New Horizons: Reconnaissance of the Pluto-Charon System and the Kuiper Belt. New York, NY: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Chou B-H, Suzuki E. Discovering Community-Oriented Roles of Nodes in a Social Network. In: Bach Pedersen T, Mohania MK, Tjoa AM, editors. Data Warehousing and Knowledge Discovery: 12th International Conference, DAWAK 2010, Bilbao, Spain, August/September 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. page 52–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Worm.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Don’t Miss The “Blood Moon” Eclipse Later This Month. IFLScience2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax System Modernization: Status of On-Line Files Initiative and Telecommunications Planning. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duggimpudi MB. Object Ranking Algorithms for Improved Decision Making. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly S. Still Huffing, Still Puffing. New York Times2001; :720.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWorm
ISSN (print)2162-4046
ISSN (online)2162-4054

Other styles