How to format your references using the Worm citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Worm. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Marra J. When will we tame the oceans? Nature 2005; 436:175–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Lyerly AD, Faden RR. Embryonic stem cells. Willingness to donate frozen embryos for stem cell research. Science 2007; 317:46–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Chakraborty S, Yanchulova P, Thiemens MH. Mass-independent oxygen isotopic partitioning during gas-phase SiO2 formation. Science 2013; 342:463–6.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1.
de Villeneuve VWA, Dullens RPA, Aarts DGAL, Groeneveld E, Scherff JH, Kegel WK, Lekkerkerker HNW. Colloidal hard-sphere crystal growth frustrated by large spherical impurities. Science 2005; 309:1231–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Niven PR. Balanced Scorecard Evolution. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Courbage C, editor. The Geneva Papers: 40 Years at the Cutting Edge of Research in Insurance Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Akbar A, Howden CW. Lifestyle Modifications in GERD. In: Vaezi MF, editor. Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. page 59–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Worm.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Contraceptive Pill Acts As “Beer Goggles”, Making Unattractive Men Seem More Attractive [Internet]. IFLScience2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/brain/contraceptives-even-out-male-beauty-playing-field/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Space Station: Inadequate Planning and Design Led to Propulsion Module Project Failure. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Wylie RW. Response to Intervention: A Study of Intervention Programs in Rural Secondary Schools. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Murphy MJO. Friday File. New York Times2015; :C34.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWorm
AbbreviationWorm
ISSN (print)2162-4046
ISSN (online)2162-4054
Scope

Other styles