How to format your references using the Worm citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Worm. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marshall E. A sinister plot or victim of politics? Science 2000; 289:571.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ryan RJH, Bernstein BE. Molecular biology. Genetic events that shape the cancer epigenome. Science 2012; 336:1513–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee ASY, Kranzusch PJ, Cate JHD. eIF3 targets cell-proliferation messenger RNAs for translational activation or repression. Nature 2015; 522:111–4.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kunze E, Dower JF, Beveridge I, Dewey R, Bartlett KP. Observations of biologically generated turbulence in a coastal inlet. Science 2006; 313:1768–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chaudhry A, Coetsee D, Bakker E, Varughese S, McIlwaine S, Fuller C, Rands E, de Vos N, Longmore S, Balasubramanian TV. 2015 Interpretation and Application of International Financial Reporting Standards. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Bischof C, Hegering H-G, Nagel WE, Wittum G, editors. Competence in High Performance Computing 2010: Proceedings of an International Conference on Competence in High Performance Computing, June 2010, Schloss Schwetzingen, Germany. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Strobel J, Tillberg-Webb H. Applying a Critical and Humanizing Framework of Instructional Technologies to Educational Practice. In: Moller L, Huett JB, Harvey DM, editors. Learning and Instructional Technologies for the 21st Century: Visions of the Future. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. page 1–19.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Worm.

Blog post
Hale T. A Mother Monkey Appears To Wail And Cradle Its Collapsed Child [Internet]. IFLScience2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Budget: Information on Two IRS Computer Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lai J-P. Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome Ten (PTEN) As A Molecular Target in Lung Epithelial Wound Repair and Protection. 2008;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J. As Hopes for European Unity Dim, New E.U. Headquarters Are Glowing. New York Times2016; :A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleWorm
ISSN (print)2162-4046
ISSN (online)2162-4054

Other styles